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Sociology - Beliefs > Globalisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Globalisation Deck (9):
1

Giddens

Traditionalists want to return to fundamentals of religion because globalisation undermines traditional norms such as sex outside marriage, and this creates uncertainty that the rigid rules of monotheistic religions can combat. Individuals respond in a cosmopolitan or fundamentalist way

2

Bruce

In the West, fundamentalism is a response to choice and diversity, but in the third world, it is a reaction to changes being thrust upon them, e.g. the Iranian revolution, and these countries use fundamentalism as a cultural defence to maintain traditions and values

3

Davies

Specialist skills are needed to study fundamentalism as xenophobic attitudes need to be avoided and fundamentalism itself is difficult to define. Believes it is related to the pressures of an evolving society

4

Huntington

Clash of civilisations: Civilisations who share a common culture come into conflict, which creates a "them" and "us" mentality. Two of these civilisations are Islam and the West

5

Lehmann

Religions like Christianity have become globalised through two stages; imposing the religion due to conquest and then spreading due to a popular following. Also believes that Pentecostalism is so successful because it incorporates "local messages" through imagery and symbolism that validates tradition

6

Berger

Something like Pentecostalism is needed for economic development, as the religion promotes hard work and personal discipline, which translates to prosperity and economic development. This is seen in South Brazil

7

Redding

The East Asian Tiger economies are successful because of the "spirit of capitalism" among Chinese entrepeuners. Their post-Confucian belief system emphasises hard work, self-discipline, frugality and a commitment to education. These all boost the economy

8

Nanda

Studied Hinduism in India and found that Hinduism had been essential in aiding economic growth because:
1. Tele-gurus were now preaching materialism and wealth was not a negative thing which led to an increasing work ethic and prosperity (a "business-friendly" version of Hinduism)
2. India has developed ultra nationalism where India's success is seen to be the result of Hindu values and a superior belief system

9

What two examples of a cultural defence does Bruce give?

Poland and Iran