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Flashcards in Science Deck (10):


Science was used to justify the exclusion of women from institutions such as education



Disputes science is an "open system", arguing that scientists all have to work within a paradigm (a set of assumptions, e.g. evolution)



Says all belief systems have a partial or one-sided view because they are created from the viewpoint of one particular group and its interests. Two types of worldview are evident:

Ideological thought - Justifies keeping things the way they are

Utopian thought - Justifies social change

Each belief system gives a different worldview and is therefore a cause of conflict in society. The solution of this is to have a free-floating intelligentsia, a group detached from social groups who can synthesise elements of partial ideologies and utopia and arrive at a "total worldview".



Science has "cognitive power" as it is open to scrutiny and can be falsified. It is an open belief system that can be questioned and therefore withstands criticism. In contrast, religion is seen as a closed system which is not open to dispute



Science has gained "cognitive power" as it is an "open belief system". Scientists have "cudos norms".

Communism - Scientific knowledge must be shared for knowledge to grow.
Universalism - The truth of scientific knowledge is judged by universal testing and criteria without prejudice or interference.
Disinterestedness - Being committed to discovering knowledge for its own sake (to avoid fraud), not to improve own status.
Organised skepticism - No knowledge claim is sacred. Every idea is open to objective investigation.



The working-class have a dual-consciousness which is a combination of ruling and their own ideas. He further argues that a political party of "organic intellectuals" could overthrow the ruling class by spreading the "class consciousness"


Who can be used from other units to suggest science has replaced religion?

Bruce - Technological world view, cultural defence/transition

Heelas and Woodhead - The holistic mileu is not growing fast enough to compensate for declining religion, suggesting science is more dominant

Weber - Rationality and disenchantment


Who can be used from other units to suggest religion remains important?

▪ Heelas and Woodhead - Growth of the holistic mileu

▪ Aldridge - Remains crucial to identity ("imagined communities")

▪ Nanda - Growth of business-friendly Hinduism

▪ Postmodernism

▪ Huntington - Clash of civilisations (Fundamentalism)

▪ Rise of Pentecostalism (Aldridge/Berger)

▪ Martin - Debate is Eurocentric


What are the features of science?

- Empirical - Evidence can be counted and measured.

- Theoretical - Seeks to uncover causal relationships.

- Objective - Others can check your findings.

- Cumulative - Builds on previous knowledge so there is an ever-growing body of knowledge.



Science can also be a closed system, such as scientists being ridiculed when they challenge an accepted paradigm, with the only exception being "scientific revolutions" when faith in paradigms has already been challenged