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Flashcards in NRMs and NAMs Deck (13):


Categorises NRMs into world-accepting, world-accommodating and world-rejecting based on their interaction with society


World-affirming NRMs

Accept the world as it is and therefore promise their followers help to achieve mainstream goals. They are non-exclusive and are tolerant of other religions e.g. Scientology


World-accommodating NRMs

Neither accept nor reject the world, as they believe that spiritual matters are more important than worldly matters. These are breakaways from Churches and therefore have most in common with denominations e.g. Neo-Pentecostalism


World-rejecting NRMs

These are highly critical of the outside world and seek radical societal change. Members break from society to live communally and follow conservative codes. They are millenarian - they expect intervention to change the world e.g. the Moonies and Jim Jones' People's Temple



Those who are marginalised turn to world rejecting NRMs as they offer a "theodicy of disprivilege" whereby the NRM offers an explanation and solution to oppression


Stark and Bainbridge

The W/C join world rejecting NRMs for compensation in their next life and to feel part of something bigger than themselves; M/C join world affirming NRMs due to focus on career/material goals (Relative deprivation)



Sects offer a solution to the uncertainty of social change - e.g. during the period of industrialisation Methodism emerged


What other two motives do individuals have for joining an NRM?

Pragmatism and the spiritual void



Sects tend to be short-lived or compromise and become a denomination for three reasons: a death of a leader, the Protestant ethic effect or the second generation effect


Stark and Bainbridge

The Sectarian cycle:
1: A sect forms after a breakaway from a Church.
2: Initial fervour due to a charismatic leader that creates tension between the sect and society.
3: Denominationalism (Protestant ethic)
4: Establishment - sect becomes world accepting.
5: Further schism as less privileged members break away and form new sects.



The growth of NAMs is evidence of postmodernism and the failure of science



Sees the focus on individualism as late modern


Heelas and Woodhead

Found there was a rise in the holistic milieu whereby females particularly were engaging in new forms of religiosity (NAMs). Features of NAMs include self-spirituality and the value being placed on experience