Flashcards in Secularisation Deck (12):
Rationalisation, created by the introduction of technology, causes the decline of religion because it challenges the religious world view by giving us more control over nature and more explanations for natural phenomena.
The Protestant Reformation challenged the Catholic world view, which led to disenchantment (a loss of religion)
Technology has replaced religion because we seek scientific, rational explanations; where science fails, we turn to religion, such as incurable illnesses. The only place religion survives is where technology is ineffective
Religion only stays important when it performs other functions e.g. cultural defence/transition
Secularisation is a decline in religious thinking, practices and institutions. 6.3% of the population attended Church on a Sunday in 2005
The move from pre-industrial to industrial society has undermined the role of religion. It is no longer central to communities due to the movement of people creating social and cultural diversity. Geographical mobility meant the role of the Church in communities was undermined
Gill et al.
Identified a fall in those who believed there was a God. More were stating that they had no religion
Structural differentiation: New specialist institutions are introduced to perform key functions. Where the Church used to perform many functions, differentiation means other institutions perform these tasks e.g. education. This leads to disengagement, where the Church has less to no involvement in the state
Religious diversity leads to secularisation. Following the Protestant Reformation there was a crisis of credibility as the Catholic worldview was undermined. Diversity undermines the "sacred canopy" which creates a crisis of credibility
Later changes his view to argue choice and diversity can stimulate interest in religion
Faith can still be an essential part of identity. Followers may feel part of a global "imagined community". E.g. Pentecostalism has gone global
Questions the "golden age" of religion in Victorian Britain as the middle classes often only went to Church for social approval. Church attendance now reflects those who hold genuine beliefs.
The debate is Eurocentric. Religion remains key globally.
Greeley and Nelson
Choice and diversity can lead to religious revival - New Christian Right
What does Bruce say about America?
America isn't as religious as it is suggested due to:
- Poor attendance - despite Americans claiming to have faith, Churches remain empty.
- Secularisation from within - Religion more as therapy.
- More acceptance of religious diversity - America is more accepting of other views, reducing the Christian message
Who can we use from past units to argue society IS more secular?
Voas and Crockett
Norris and Inglehart
Heelas and Woodhead
Stark and Bainbridge