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Flashcards in Gram (-) - 2 Deck (51):
1

Klebsiella - location

intestinal flora

2

Klebsiella - characteristics

robs, lactose FAST fermenter, polysaccharide capsule

3

Klebsiella - clinical manifestation (and situations)

1. lobar pneumonia (and bronchopneumonia) (in alcoholics, diabetes)
2. UTI (nosocomial)
3. Abscess in Lung and liver

4

Klebsiella - pneumonia (types and situations)

lobar pneumonia in alcoholics, diabetes when aspirated

5

Klebsiella - appearance (clinically)

1. very mucoid colonies caused by abundant polysaccharide capsule
2. dark red currant jelly sputum (blood/mucus)

6

Campylobacter jejuni - characteristics

gram (-), oxidase comma (or S) shape, grows in 42c

7

Campylobacter jejuni - clinical manifestations

1. Major cause of bloody diarrhea (especially in children)
2. Guillain-Barre syndrome
3. reactive arthritis

8

Campylobacter jejuni - transmission

1. Fecal-oral transmission through person-person
2. ingestion of poultry, meat (undercooked), unpasteurized milk
3. contact with infected animals (dogs, cats, pigs)

9

Campylobacter jejuni grows in ... c

42

10

Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of

bloody diarrhea (especially in children)

11

Salmonella - characteristics

gram (-), rob, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase - produce H2S in TSI agar

12

Shigella - characteristics

gram (-), rob, lactose nonfermenter, oxidase - NOT produce H2S in TSI agar

13

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - reservoir

Salmonella typhi --> only human
other salmonella --> human and animals (poultry, pets, turtle)
shigella --> humans only

14

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - spread

Salmonella typhi --> can disseminated hemategenously
other salmonella --> can disseminated hemategenously
shigella --> cell - to - cell/ no hematogenous spread

15

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella -H2S production

Salmonella typhi --> yes
other salmonella -->yes
shigella --> no

16

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - flagella

Salmonella typhi --> yes (salmon swim)
other salmonella --> yes (salmon swim)
shigella --> no

17

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - virulence factors

Salmonella typhi --> endotoxin, Vi capsule
other salmonella --> endotoxin
shigella --> Endotoxin, shiga toxin (enterotoxin)

18

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - effects of antibiotics on fecal excretion

Salmonella typhi --> prolongs duration
other salmonella --> prolongs duration
shigella --> shortens duration

19

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - immune response

Salmonella typhi --> primarily moncytes
other salmonella -->PMNs in disseminated disease
shigella --> Primarily PMN infiltration

20

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - GI manifestation

Salmonella typhi --> constipation, followed by diarrhea
other salmonella -->bloody diarrhea
shigella --> bloody diarrhea (bacillary dysentery)

21

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - vaccine

Salmonella typhi --> yes
other salmonella --> no
shigella --> no

22

Salmonella typhi - vaccine

oral vaccine --> live attenuated S. typhi
IM vaccine --> contains Vi capsular polysaccharide

23

salmonella (except typhi) causes / treatment

gastrenteritis (bloody diarrhea)
antibiotcis are not indicated

24

shigella is transmitter by

4Fs
Fingers
Flies
Food
Feces

25

shigella infection with decreasing severity?

less toxin produced --> cause disease due to invasion
S. dysenteriae
S. flexneri
S. boydii
S. sonnei

26

shigella infection - the key to pathogenecity

invasion

27

shigella infection - organism with little toxin can cause disease due to

invasion

28

shigella - in order of decreasing severity (less toxin)

S. dysenteriae
S. flexneri
S. boydii
S. sonnei

29

Salmonella typhi causes

typhoid fever

30

typhoid fever is caused by/symptoms

Salmonella typhi
rose spots on abdomen constipation, abdominal pain, fever

31

typhoid fever - treatment

ceftriaxone or flouroquinolone

32

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - carrier state?

Salmonella typhi - gallbladder colonization

33

Vibrio cholera - characteristics

gram (-), grows in alkaline media, oxidase +, comma shape

34

Vibrio cholera - mechanism of action

cholera toxin --> overactivates adenylate cyclase (increases cAMP) by permanently activateing Gs --> increases CL- secretion in gut and H20 efflux

35

Vibrio cholera - endemic to

developing countries

36

Vibrio cholera - symptoms

profuse rice water diarrhea

37

Vibrio cholera - treatment

prompt oral rehydration is necessary

38

Yersinia enterocolitica - transmission

1. from pet feces (eg. puppies)
2. contaminated milk
3. pork

39

Yersinia enterocolitica - clinical manifestations

1. acute diarrhea
2. pseudo-appendicitis

40

Yersinia enterocolitica - pseudo-appendicitis?

right lower abdominal pain due to mesenteric adenitis and/or terminal ileitis

41

Helicobacter pylori causes (clinical manifestation)

Causes gasritis and peptic ulcers (especially duodenal)

42

Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for

1. Causes gasritis and peptic ulcers (especially duodenal)
2. gastric adenocarcinoma
3. MALT lymphoma

43

Helicobacter pylori - characteristics

produces urease, oxidase +, comma (Curved) shape, catalase +

44

Helicobacter pylori creates ... environment

alkaline

45

Helicobacter pylori - test for diagnosis

1. urea breath test
2. fecal antigen test
3. blood test - antibodies
4. biopsy

46

Helicobacter pylori - treatment

MC initial treatment:
PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR + CLARITHROMYCIN + AMOXICILLIN (or metronidaxzole if penicillin allergy)

47

Helicobacter pylori - stain

silver stain

48

silver stain is used to stain

1. Fungi (eg. Pneumocytosis)
2. Legionella
3. Helicobacter pylori

49

Gram (-) - subgroups - oxidase +, comma shape

1. Campylobacter jejuni (grows in 42c, oxidase +, comma shape)
2. Vibrio cholera (grows in alkaline media, oxidase +, comma shape)
3. Helicobacter pylori (produces urease, oxidase +, comma shape, catalase +)

50

Salmonella typhi vs other salmonella vs shigella - infectious dose (ID50) and mechanism

Salmonella typhi --> high (large inoculum required becauses organism inactivated by gastric acid)
other salmonella --> high
shigella --> low (very small inoculum required, resistant to gastric acid)

51

Vibro cholera - acid

Sensitive to stomach acid (acid labile) --> requires large inoculum (high ID50) unless host has decreased gastric acidity