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Flashcards in Mycology Deck (62):
1

type of fungal infections

1. systemic mycoses
2. Cutaneous mycoses
3. opportunistic fungal infections

2

systemic mycoses - clinical manifestation

pneumonia and can disseminate

3

systemic mycoses - diseases?

1. Histoplasmosis
2. Blastomycosis
3. Coccidioidomycosis
4. Paracoccidioidomycosis

4

systemic mycoses - appearance

all dimorphic fungi
(EXCEPT COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS --> SPHERULE - NOT YEAST IN TISSUE)

5

dimorphic fungi?

cold (20c) --> mold
heat (37c) --> yeast

6

coccidioidomycosis - appearance in tissue

spherule (not yeast)

7

systemic mycoses -treatment

local infection: fluconazole or intraconazole
systemic infection: amphotericin B

8

systemic mycoses can mimic ... (WHY) - except

TB (granouloma formation)
except, unlike TB, no peroson to person transmission

9

Histoplasmosis - area (map)

Mississippi and Ohio River valleys

10

Histoplasmosis causes

pneumonia and erythema nodosum

11

Histoplasmosis - under the microscope

Macrophage filled with Histoplasma (smaller thatn RBC)

12

Histoplasmosis - source

Bird or bat dropping

13

Blastomycosis - area (map)

Eastern US and Central America

14

Blastomycosis causes

inflammatory lund disease and can disseminate to skin and bones

15

Blastomycosis forms

granulomatous nodules

16

Blastomycosis - under the microscope

Broad-based budding
same size as RBCs

17

Coccidioidomycosis - area (map)

Southwestern US, California

18

Coccidioidomycosis causes

Pneumonia, meningitis and can dissemiante to bone
and skin (deseert bumps --> erythema nodosum, desert theumatism --> arthralgias)

19

Coccidioidomycosis - case rate increases after ... (WHY)

earthquakes (spores in dust thrown into air --> inhaled --> spheruls in lung

20

Coccidioidomycosis - under the microscope

spherule filled with endospores
much larger than RBCs

21

Coccidioidomycosis is also called

Valley fever

22

Valley fever is

Coccidioidomycosis

23

Paracocciddioidomycosis - area (map)

Latin america

24

Paracocciddioidomycosis under the microscope

Budding yeast with "captain's wheel formation
much larger than RBCs

25

systemic mycosis - area (map)

1. Histoplasmosis --> Mississippi and Ohio River valleys
2. Blastomycosis --> Eastern US and Central America
3. Coccidioidomycosis --> Southwestern US, California
4. Paracoccidioidomycosis --> Latin America

26

systemic mycosis - size vs RBC

1. Histoplasmosis - smaller
2. Blastomycosis - same
3. Coccidioidomycosis - much larger
4. Paracoccidioidomycosis - much larger

27

systemic mycosis - meningitis

Coccidioidomycosis

28

systemic mycosis - erythema nodosum

1. Coccidioidomycosis
2. Histoplasmosis

29

Erythema nodosum are .. (and histological area)

painful inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat

30

Erythema nodosum - causes MC area of the body

1. idiopathic 2. sarcoidosis 3. coccidioidomycosis 4. histoplasmosis 5. TB 6. streptococcal infections 7. leprosy
7. Crohn disease

31

systemic mycosis - under the microscope

1. Histoplasmosis --> Macrophages filled with Histoplasma
2. Blastomycosis --> Broad-base budding
3. Coccidioidomycosis --> spherule filled with endospores
4. Paracoccidioidomycosis --> captain wheel
--> shines

32

Cutaneous mycoses are divided to

1. tinea (dermatophytoses)
2. tinea versicolor

33

tinea?

is the clinical name given to dermatophyte cutaneous fungual infection

34

Dermatohytes include

1. Microsporum
2. Trichophyton
3. Epidermophyton

35

Dermatohytes - appearance

branching septate hyphae visible on KOH preparation with blue fungal stain

36

Cutaneous mycoses - types

1. tinea capitis (dermatophytoses)
2. tinea corporis (dermatophytoses)
3. tinea cruris (dermatophytoses)
4. tinea pedis (dermatophytoses)
5. tinea unguium (dermatophytoses)
6. Tinea versicolor

37

Tinea capitis occurs on (area of the body)

head, scalp

38

Tinea capitis - symptoms

1. lympadenopathy
2. alopecia
3. scaling

39

Tinea corporis - area of the body

torso (κορμός)

40

Tinea corporis - symptoms

erythematous scaling rings (ringworm) and central clearing

41

Tinea corporis can be acquired from

contact with an infected cat or dog

42

Tinea cruris - occur in (area of the body)

inguinal area

43

Tinea cruris - symptoms

rash in the inguinal area without the central clearing seen in the tinea corporis

44

Tinea unguium - is also called

onychomycosis

45

Tinea unguium occurs on (area of the body)

nails

46

Tinea pedis - how many varieties and which

1. interdigital
2. Moccasin distribution
3. Vesicular type (blister)

47

Tinea pedis - MC variety

interdigital

48

Tinea pedis is AKA

athlete's foot

49

Tinea versicolor is caused by

Malassezia spp (Pitirosporum spp)

50

Malassezia is AKA

Pitirosporum

51

Malassezia spp (Pitirosporum spp) - type of fungus

yeast like fungus

52

Malassezia spp (Pitirosporum spp) - tinea

Malassezia spp (Pitirosporum spp) is not a dermatophyte, despite being called tinea

53

Malassezia spp (Pitirosporum spp) - mechanism of action

degradation of lipids produces acids that damage melanocytes and cause hypopigmented and/or pink patches

54

Tinea versicolor - whether

any time of year but common in summer (hot, humid weather)

55

Tinea versicolor can occur any time of year but common in

summer (hot, humid weather)

56

Tinea versicolor - under microscopy

spaghetti and meatballs

57

Tinea versicolor - treatment

1. topical and/oral antifungul medication
2. selenium sulfate

58

spaghetti and meatballs under microscopy

Tinea versicolor

59

cutaneous mycoses - inguinal area

tinea cruris

60

cutaneous mycoses - interdigital

tinea pedis

61

cutaneous mycoses - ringworm

tinea corporis

62

cutaneous mycoses - nails

tinea unguium