Spirochetes Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Spirochetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spirochetes Deck (45):
1

bacterial taxonomy - spiral?

spirochetes (Borrelia, Leptospira, Treponema)

2

spirochetes - bugs and appearance

spiral - shaped bacteria with axial filaments
1. Borrelia 2. Leptospira 3. Treponema

3

big size spirochete?

Borrelia

4

spirochetes - visualized in light microscopy

only Borrelia, using aniline dyes (Wright or Giemsa), due to size

5

visualization of treponema

dark field microscopy
and
fluorescent antibody staining

6

Leptospira interrogans - found in

water contaminated with animal urine

7

Leptospira interrogans causes

1. leptospirosis
2. Weil disease (icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis)

8

Leptospirosis - symptoms

1. flu like
2. myalgias (classically in calves)
3. jundice
4. photophobia with conjuctival suffusion (erythema without exudate)

9

Leptospirosis - myalgias / prevelance

classically in calves
prevelant among surfers and in tropics (eg. Hawaii)

10

icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis is also called

Weil disease

11

Weil disease vs Leptospirosis - severe form?

Weil disease icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis

12

Weil disease (icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis) - symptoms

1. jaundice
2. azotemia (from liver and kidney dysfunction)
3. fever
4. hemorrhage
5. anemia

13

Lyme disease is caused by

Borrelia burgdorferi

14

Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by

the Ixodes deer tick

15

Ixodes deer tick is the vector of

1. Borrelia burgdorferi
2. Anaplasma
3. protoza Babesia

16

Borrelia burgdorferi - natural reservoir (relevance)

the mouse
mice are important to tick life cycle

17

Borrelia burgdorferi is common in

northeastern United States

18

Lyme disease - symptoms

Stage 1: early localized: erythema migrans + flu like sympoms
Stage 2: early disseminated: secondary lesions, carditis, AV block, facial nerve palsy, migratory myalgias/transiet arthritis
Stage 3: late disseminated: encephalopathies, chronic arthritis

19

Lyme disease - treatment

1. doxycycline
2. ceftriaxone

20

syphilis is caused by

Treponema pallidum

21

syphilis is divided to (and time)

1ry syphilis (3-6 weeks after infection)
2ry syphilis (6 weeks after resolution of 1ry)
3ry syphilis (6-40 years after infection)
Congenital syphilis
latent syphilis

22

How is syphilis transmitted

sexually or transplacentally

23

1ry syphilis - when / manifestation

localized disease presenting with painless chancre (3-6 weeks after infection)

24

1ry syphilis - how to diagnose

1. use dark-field microscopy to visualize treponemes in fluid from chancre
2. VDRL (positive in 80%)

25

1ry syphilis - VDRL

positive in 80%

26

2ry syphilis - when

6 weeks after resolution of 1ry

27

2ry syphilis - manifestations

1. disseminated disease with constitutional symptoms
2. maculopapular rash (including palms and soles)
3. condylomata lata (smooth, moist, painless, wart-like white lesions on genitals)
5. lymphadenopahy, patchy hair loss

28

2ry syphilis - diagnosis

1. dark-field microscopy
2. VDRL/RPR (nonspecific)
3. FTA-ABS (specific, to confirm)

29

syphilis - which test remains positive after treatment

FTA-ABS

30

2ry syphilis - maculopapular rash including

palms and soles

31

latent syphilis

positive serology without symptoms

32

3ry syphilis - manifestation

1. gummas (chronic granulomas)
2. aortitis (vasa vasorum destruction)
3. neurosyphilis (tabe dorsalis, general paresis)
4. Argyll Robertson pupil

33

tabes dorsasis - spinal cord lesion?

degeneration (DEMYELINATION) of dorsal columns and roots

34

3ry syphilis - signs

1. broad based ataxia
2. positive Romberg
3. absence of Deep Tendon Reflexes
4. Stroke without hypertension

35

diagnosis for neurosyphilis

test spinal fluid with VDRL, FTA-ABS and PCR

36

Congenital syphilis - symptoms

OFTEN RESILTS IN STILLBIRTH, HYDROPS FETALIS
1. facial abnormalities
2. snuffles (nasal discharge)
3. saddle nose
4. notched (Hutchinson) teeth
5. mulberry molars
6. short maxilla
7. saber shins
8. CN VIII deafness

37

how to prevent congenital syphilis

treat mother early in pregnancy, as placental transmission occurs after first trimester

38

VDRL detects

nonspecific antibody that reacts with beef cardiolipine

39

VDRL - characteristics

inexpensive, non-specific, widely available, quantitative

40

VDRL - false positive - conditions

Mnemonic: VDRL
1. Viral infection (mono, hepatitis)
2. Drugs
3. Rheumatic fever
4. Lupus and Leprosi

41

FTA-ABS detects

antibodies against Treponema Pallidum

42

Jarisch-Herheimer reaction??

flu like syndrome (fever, chills, headache, myalgia) after antibiotics

43

Jarisch-Herheimer reaction after antibiotics due to

killed bacteria releasing (usually spirochetes) endotoxins

44

Borrelia recurrentis causes

Relapsing fever

45

Why does relapsing fever relapse?

antigenic variation: Borrelia recurrentis changes its surface proteins to evade the immune system