Flashcards in Gram Postive Bacilli Deck (95):
Sporeformer (central spore)
Strictly aerobic/Facultative Anaerobe
M except B.anthracis; Thermophilic
Classification of bacillus based on the location and shape of the spore: Ellipsoidal and does not cause swelling.
Classification of bacillus based on the location and shape of the spore:has large cell more than 0.9 um.
Subgroup 1: B.anthracis, B.cerues, B.megaterium, B.thuringiensis
Classification of bacillus based on the location and shape of the spore: has small cell less than 0.9 um.
Subgroup 2: B.subtilis, B.coagulans, B.pumilus
Classification of bacillus based on the location and shape of the spores: oval shaped and are swollen.
Group 2: B.stearothermophilus, B.polymxa, B.circulans
Classification of bacillus based on the location and shape of the spore: circular shape and are swollen. Most fastidious and has complex nutrition.
Group 3: B.sphaericus, B.panthothenicus.
On 5% sheep's blood agar, B.cereus are:
Alpha or beta hemolytic with lavander color.
Other Bacillus sp. appear as:
Large, flat and dull with a ground glass appearance.
Bacillus infection: involves the eye (Keratitis, conjunctivitis, orbital abscess)
Bacillus infection: infection with other organisms (wound, burnt)
Bacillus infection: organism cultured from blood and CSF (meninggitis, bacteremia)
Common name of Bacillus anthracis
Most virulent human pathogen in this genus. Large, NM, encapsulated, gm. (+) with square ends forming long chains. With oval, central or sub terminal spore not swollen. Disjointed bamboo fishing rod appearance.
Cultural characteristics of B.anthracis on BAP:
Non-hemolytic; with comma shaped growths described as Medusa head colony or lion head or cut-glass appearance or comet tail.
Cultural characteristics of B.anthracis on med. containing small amount of penicillin:
Organism can still grow but will produce similar string of pearl.
Cultural characteristics of B.anthracis on gelatin medium:
Inverted Fir Tree or Inverted Chrismtas Tree; produce acid from glucose, maltose and sucrose
Diseases of Bacillus anthracis:
Anthrax, Silberian Fever, Black Bair
Cutaneous anthrax or malignant pustule; skin contract
Internal: transmitted by inhalation of spore while handling wool; woolsorter's disease or ragpicker's disease.
Internal: ingestion of improperly cooked infected meat.
Intestinal anthracis or violent enteritis
Laboratory DX of Bacillus anthracis: stained smears:
Laboratory DX of Bacillus anthracis: culture m;
PLET Medium ( Polymixin, Lysozyme, Disodium EDTA, Thallou acetate)
Laboratory DX of Bacillus anthracis: the extracts if infected tissue show a ring of ppt when layered over immuned serum. Diagnosis precipitin test for B.anthracis.
Common name of Bacillus cereus.
Fried rice bacillus.
2nd most virulent human pathogen. They are called anthrax-like or pseudoanthrax bacilli; NE, M, beta-hemolytic. Most resistant species.
Appear as rough, dry and cremated with distinct bright blue color.
PEEMBA Medium (Polymixin pyruvate-egg-yolk-mannitol-brom Thymol blue agar)
Differentiation test between B.anthracis and other Bacillus sp.
Lectin Agglutination Assays
Specimen used in B.cereus:
Blood, swab with pus, sputum, feces
Bacillus subtilis is also know as
Hay bacillus or grass bacillus
Gm +, catalase positive, bacterium commonly found in soil, obligate aerobe, rod shaped and has the ability to form a tough, protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Common lab contaminant.
Strictly anaerobe/some are aerotolerant; catalase negative.
All are motile (Peri) except:
C. Perfringens, C.ramosum, C.inocuum
All have swollen spores except:
All are non-encapsulated except:
All are lactose + except:
C.perfringens and C.septicum
All are sucrose + except:
All are single hemolytic except:
C.perfringens (double hemolysis)
All are dextrose + except;
Biochem test for clostridium; Lecithinase C Activity +:
C.perfringens, C.noyvi, C.sordeli
Biochem test for clostridium: Lipass hyrdolysis +:
Biochem test for clostridium: Lactose fermentation +:
Biochem test for clostridium: proteinase activity +:
C.sordeli, C.botulinum, C. Histolyticum
Common name of clostridium perfringens.
Small gm + plum rods;NM, with oval or sub terminal spores. Lecithinase/Nagler Reaction +; Reverse CAMP ; Ferments glucose, maltose, sucrose and fructose.
Exhibits Nagler's production.
+: result of zone of halo opacity around colonies in the side
Cultural characteristics of C.perfringens: on BAP
Double zone of hemolysis or target hemolysis
Cultural characteristics of C.perfringens:
Causes stormy fermentation of milk due to excessive production of gas.
Makes use of starch and raffinose.
Duncan and strong medium
Best sporulating medium
Types of infection:
Necrotic enteritis or fire in the bowel
Diagnosis of C.perfringens.
Swab from lesion and culture
Culture of pus
Causative agent of tetanus. M with round and terminal spore giving rise to drumstick, lollipop and tennis racket. Gelatinase and INDOLE +; Lecithinase and lipase -. Produced tetanolysin and tetanospamin.
Classic symptom is Trismus or lockjaw
Peculiar smile of tetanus
Ganglia site binds of the tetanospamin
Wasserman takaki phenomenon
C.tetani on BAP:
Initially alpha then beta hemolytic
Pathogenesis of C.tetani
Fever, pain, lockjaw, sardonic smile, spasm
Diagnosis of C.tetani
Secretion of lesion- BAP, Thyoglycolate
Prevention of C.tetani
Active immune with toxoid
Common name of clostridium botulinum
Canned good bacilli or Von Ermengen's bacilli
Motile, pleomorphic with oval and subterminal spore. Causative agent of botulism. Canned goods. Lipase +; Lecithinase and INDOLE -; ferments glucose but not lactose or Xylose
C.botulinum on BAP
Culture of C.botulinum
Chopped meat or BA medium
7 toxigenic type: bass on antigentically distinct toxin
Type A B C D E F G
Birds and other mammals
Pathogenesis of C.botulinum
Food intoxication/Food poisoning/Food infection
Common name for Cornyebacterium.
NM, NS, NE Aerobic of facultative anaerobe, catalas +.Straight or slightly curved with one end typically swollen. Pleomorphic, globular, bar shaped, club shaped, Gram +, AFD. Pathogens only to human; stains irregularly and contains deeply stained. Metachromatic granules "Babes-Ernst granules". Chinese letter or character appearance or picket fence appearance.
Cornyebacterium diphtheriae on BAP.
Organism with a tendency to lie parallel to each other at right angles forming V and L shape produces narrow zone of hemolysis.
Potassium tellurite on Cornyebacterium diphtheriae
C.diphtheriae form brown halo
Stimulates growth and distinctive morphologyon C.diphtheriae
Egg and Serum Medium
Enhanced pleomorphism- white or gray poached egg on C.diphtheriae
Loaffler's serum slant
Inhibits gm - and + bacteria while enhancing the growth of Cornyebacterium.
Cysteine Tellurite Blood Agar
Fine granules deposit at the bottom with clear supernate and a thin pellicle formation at the surface on C.diphtheriae
Small, moist, smooth, slightly raised, grayish colonies with entire margin on C.diphtheriae
Grayish black colonies on C.diphtheriae
Gun metal gray colonies with brown halo on C.diphtheriae
Cystine tellurite medium
Enhances Pleomorphism and granule formation on C.diphtheriae
Pai's Coagulated Egg Medium
Acute communicable disease manifested by: Local Infection
Diagnostic feature of Diphtheria and most pathogenic sign of Diphtheria.
Pseudo membrane formation
+: redness and swelling; susceptibility test for Diphtheria.
A gel diffusion test med of Diphtheria.
Protease Peptone Agar also known as outerlony tech.
Largest colony type, large and flag, dark gray and have irregular edges
With fried egg appearance on BAP
Small and black
Pathogenesis of Diphtheria.
Toxin is absorbed-destruction of cell-inflammatory response- formation of pseudo membrane - bleeding - edema
Specimens used in Diphtheria
Nose and throat swab
Positive result of vitro toxigenecity test
Lines of precipitation
Positive result of Vivo toxigenecity test
Death of unprotected guinea pig
Formerly know as C.ovis; associated with horses
Causative agent of erythrema