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Flashcards in Biochemical Tests Deck (114):
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Utilization of carbohydrates by bacteria. In bacteriology, observing color changes in pH indicator as acid products are formed.

Fermentation

1

Contains lactose, glucose, sucrose and iron and forms H2S

Triple Sugar Iron

2

If glucose are fermented, butt will produce and slant will produce what?

Butt becomes yellowish and Slant becomes initially yellow.

3

Since glucose is in low conc., organism in aerobic conditions uses Peptone medium, slabs will become what?

Slant becomes alkaline

4

TSI organism that ferments lactose will have an?

A/A reaction

5

A/A with gas on TSI

E.coli

6

A/A with H2S on TSI

Citrobacter freundii

7

K/A with gas and H2S on TSI

Proteus mirabilis

8

K/K on TSI

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

9

TSI

pH indicator ( phenol red)

10

Result on CHO Fermentation Test: NLF

Edwardsiella, Morganella, Hafnia, Proteus, Providencia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, Serratia

11

Result on CHO Fermentation Test: LF

Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella

12

Result on CHO Fermentation Test: LLF

Citrobacter, Arizona

13

Two enzymes that must be present in the Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Hafnia-Serratia Group.

Beta-galactoside permease
Beta-galatosidase

14

Many of anaerobic bacteria that produces large quantities of butyric acid

Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Fusibacterium

15

Contains lactose, glucose and iron salt

Kligler's Iron Agar

16

Reactions of KIA on P. Aeruginosa

K/K

17

Reactions of KIA on Shigella sp.

K/A

18

Reactions of KIA on Samonella, Citrobacter, Arizona and some Proteus

K/A with gas and H2S

19

Reaction of E.coli and Klebsiella-Enterobacter group

A/A

20

Indicators: sodium thiosulfate and ferrous sulfate
+ black color or black ppt

H2S production

21

+ bubble formation or splitting of the media or complete displacement of the media from the bottom of the tube

Gas Production

22

Glucose and lactose

Russell's Double Agar

23

Structure similar to lactose that detects the enzyme from beta-galatosidase. Used to distinguish enteric bacteria (Salmonella -, Citrobacter +) and identify Pseudomonas. Similar to lactose, except glucose replaced ton ONPG

Beta-galactosidase and ONPG Test Orthonitrophenyl beta-d-galatopyaranoside

24

Chromophere that is released into the medium and detected by a pale yellow color.

Orthopnitrophenol

25

Result in Beta-galatosidase and ONPG test

+ Yellow
- no color change

26

SIM test:
Ability of an organism to split tryptophan to form compound indole.
+ pink to wine colored ring

INDOLE production

27

SIM: + blackening of agar

Sulfide

28

Use for initial grouping of enterobacteriaceae

IPViC

29

Production from tryptophan

INDOLE

30

Production from phenylalanine

Phenylpyruvic acid

31

Due to the formation of acetoin from pyruvate in glucose broth

Positive Vogues-proskauer test

32

Ability to utilize as a single carbon source

Citrate

33

Acidification of glucose broth due to formation of mixed carboxylic acids from pyruvate

Methyl red test

34

Ability of an organism to produce INDOLE from tryptophan

INDOLE test

35

Media used in INDOLE test

Tryptophan Agar

36

Reagent used in Indole test

Ehrlich's reagent

37

Result of INDOLE test

+ pink to wine colored ring
- no color development

38

Screening for INDOLE production

Rapid spot INDOLE test

39

Reagent used in Rapid spot indole test

P-aminocinnamaldehyde

40

Ability of organism to produce and maintain stable end products from glucose fermentation; mixed acid glucose fermentation

Methyl red test

41

Indicator used in methyl red test

Methyl red

42

Results in Methyl red test

+ distinct red or bright color red ( E.coli)
- yellow or no color change (E.cloacae)

43

Butylene glycol of glucose formation; ability of an organism to produce acetoin

Vogues-Proskauer test

44

Media used in Vogues-Proskauer test

MRVP or Clark Lubs Broth

45

Reagent used in Vogues-Proskauer test

Alpha napthol and KOHn(Barritt's method)

46

Results in Vogues-Proskauer test

+ pink to red color (E.cloacae)
- no color change (E.coli)

47

Other reagent used in vogues-Proskauer test

Apha napthol in 40% KOH creatine (Coblentz method)

48

Result in vogues-Proskauer test

+ red (Strep.mutans)
- yellow (strep mitis)

49

Key biochemical property of Salmonella, Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Ability of an organism to utilize sodium citrate as a carbon source and inorganic ammonium salts as a nitrogen source.

Citrate Utilization test

50

Media used in Citrate utilization test

Simmon Citrate Agar

51

Reagent used in Citrate Utilization test

Bromythmol Blue

52

Results in citrate utilization test

+ intense blue color (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas)
- green color ( Escherichia and Edwardsiella)

53

Enzyme produced by some aerobic bacteria as part of the respiratory oxidation mechanisms.
P.aeruginosa and N.meninggitis

Oxidase test (Cytochrome oxidase/ indophenol blue)

54

Filter paper method of Oxidase test

Tetramethyl p-phenylalanine diamine dihydrocholride

55

Results in Oxidase test

+ bluish purple ( P.aeruginosa)
- E.coli

56

To produce enzyme urease.
Some organism hydrolyze urea rapidly releasing ammonium and CO2.

Urease test

57

Strong urea producer

Providencia, Proteus, Morganella

58

Weak urea production

Klebsiella

59

Urease producer

Yersinia Enterocolitica

60

Results of urease test

+ pink/magenta P.vulgaris and S.marcesens
- no color change

61

Slow urease producer

Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter

62

Rapid Urease Production

Proteus and Providencia rettgeri, K.pneumonia, K.oxytoca, E.cloacae and Yersinia enterocilitica

63

Media used in Urease test

Christensen's Urea Agar

64

pH indicator used in Urease test

Phenol red

65

Some organisms can deaminate phenylalanine converting it to phenylpyruvic acid

Phenylalanine Deaminase Test

66

Results of Phenylalanine Deaminase Test

+ dark green color after addition of ferric chloride

67

Media used in Phenylalanine Deaminase test

Phenylalanine Agar or Tryptohpan agar

68

Reagent used in Phenylalanine Deaminase test

10% Ferric Chloride

69

Results in Phenylalananine Deaminase Test or the reagent Alpha napthol in 40% KOH in creatine (Coblentz method)

+ green color in slant (P.vulgaris)
- E.coli

70

Some organisms can Decarboxylase Lysine converting it to cadaverine

Lysine Decarboxylase Test

71

Indicator used in Lysine Decarboxylase Test

Bromcresol blue

72

Medium used in Lysine Decarboxylase Test

Lysine Iron Agar or Moeller's Agar

73

Result in Lysine Decarboxylase Agar

+ remains purple denoting an alkaline medium

74

Used to determine gram - can Decarboxylase or deaminates Lysine and form H2S

Lysine iron agar test

75

Media used on LIA.

Lysine Iron Agar contains Lysine, Glucose, Peptones, Ferric NH4 Citrate and Na thiosulfate

76

If glucose is fermented

Butt becomes acid

77

If Decarboxylase is not produce

Butt remains acid

78

If oxidative deamination of Lysine occurs

It forms burgundy color on slant in the presence of Ferric Ammonium Citrate and Flavin mononucleotide

79

If deamination do not occur

LIA slant remains purple

80

K/K on LIA reaction

- Lysine deamination
+ Lysine Decarboxylation

81

K/A on LIA reaction

- Lysine deamination
- Lysine Decarboxylation

82

R/A on LIA reaction

+ Lysine deamination
- Lysine Decarboxylation

83

H2S indicator on LIA reaction

Ferric ammonium citrate

84

Indicator on LIA reaction

Bromcresol purple

85

Test measures the ability of an organism to decarboxylate an amino acid to form an amine.nit requires acid in pH and anaerobic environment.

Decarboxylase test (Moeller's method)

86

Indicator used in Decarboxylate Test

Bromcresol purple

87

Decarboxylation of the amino acids results in

Alkaline pH change

88

3 decarboxylate broth

Lysine, Arginine, Orthinine

89

Result in Decarboxylase test

+ alkaline purple color

90

If an enterobacteriaceae contains amino acid Decarboxylase, amines produced by Decarboxylase action cause an alkaline pH. Lysine, Arginine, Orthinine are utilized. A base broth without amino acid is included in which glucose fermentation acidifies the broth.

Amino Acid Decarboxylase

91

Lysine ➡️❓

Cadaverine (decarboxylase)

92

Orthinine ➡️❓

Putrescine (decarboxylase)

93

Arginine ➡️❓

Citrulline (dihydrolase)

94

Conversion of Arginine to Citrulline

Dihydrolase reaction

95

Decarboxylation of patterns are essential for the genus identification

Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia and Salmonella

96

Decarboxylation of patterns are essential for the species identification

Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, proteus mirabilis, shigella sonnei

97

Systems for H2S production

Lead acetate paper
SIM tube
Hektoen and SS agar
XLD agar
Triple Sugar-Iron Agar

98

H2S producing

Edwardsiella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Proteus

99

Media used in H2S

TSI, LIA, SIM, HEA

100

Result in H2S production

Production of black color

101

Non motile on Motility test

Shigella and Klebsiella

102

Non motile on 35C and motile on 22-25C on motility test

Yersinia

103

Ability of organism to produce protease that hydrolyzes gelatin and liquify solid gelatin medium. Used in identification of Clostridium, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Serratia.

Gelatin Liquifacation

104

Results in gelatin Liquifacation.

+ gel liquifies (P. Vulgaris)
- gel solidifies (E.aerogenes)

105

Determine the ability of an organism to reduce nitrate to nitrate by adding sulfanilic acid and alpha-napthylamine

Nitrite Reduction

106

Result in Nitrite reduction

+ red, water soluble azo dye (E.coli)

107

MUG test and result

4-methylumberriferyl-beta-D-glucoronide
+ blue fluorescence (E.coli)
- no fluorescence (P.aeruginosa)

108

Result in Esculin Hyrdolysis

+ black (K.pneumonia)
- yellow (S.Flexneri)

109

KCN Broth results

- clear
+ turbid

110

Mako ate Utilization Test

- green
+ blue

111

String Test

ID of Vibrio

112

Reagent of String test

0.5% sodium desoxycholate

113

Result on String test

+ string like