Flashcards in SMALL PLEOMORPHIC GRAM NEG BACILLI Deck (90):
Gram - coccobacilli or bacilli; NM; NS and requires factor present in the blood for adequate growth; facultative anaerobe; oxidase +; catalase +(h.influenzae,h.haemolyticus); ferments CHO.
Do not need growth factor.
Preferred incubation on Haemophilus.
33-37C at 5-10% CO2
Haemophilus are identified thru.
Hemolytic reaction on horse blood agar, CHO fermentation tests and growth requirement for X and V factor.
Considered normal indigenous flora of the upper respiratory tract. Encapsulated.
Virulence factor of Haemophilus influenzae
Reaction of H.influenzae
Nonhemolytic reaction on horse or rabbit blood agar; rapidly killed by phagocytes.
Culture media used on H.influenzae.
Filded enriched media, levinthal agar, BAP and CAP.
Result of Filded enriched media, levinthal agar, BAP and CAP in h.influenzae
Colorless, transparent or dew drop colonies. Beta lactamase + control
Do not produce capsule; normal inhabitants of URT. Causes Otitis media and acute bronchitis.
Latex particle agglutination. ELISA
Detects enzyme that converts aminolevulinic acid into porphyrin.
Disease of H.influenzae
Laryngitis, Fetal meningitis of children and other pediatric disease, Otitis media
Koch-weeks Bacillus; closely resembles h.influenzae bio type 3; Brazilian purpuric fever which affects children.
Grows on CAP and horse blood agar but not on the sheep blood agar.
Mistaken as S.pyogenes because of its beta hemolytic activity on BAP.
Chancroid bacillus/Ducreyi's Bacillus. Agent of sexually transmitted disease chancroid. Not part of the human flora. Causative agent of ulcerative venereal disease, soft chancre/chancroid (genital lesions)
Specimen used in Haemophilus Ducreyi.
Ulcer exudate or bubo aspirate
Microscopic appearance of Haemphilus Ducreyi
Characteristics of HACEK group of bacteria
Requirements of 5-10% of CO2 for growth. Caused sub-acute bacterial endocarditis. Blood + and Mac -.
Low pathogenecity; Do not require X and V factors for growth. Oxidase and catalase -.
Normal flora of human oral cavity; destructive periodontitis; catalase +; oxidase -; + nitrate reduction; Requires CAP; very short, gram - bacilli. Star shaped bacilli
Catalase and oxidase +; pleomorphic; gram - rod with one round end and one tapered end. Tends to form clusters or rossettes from 5% sheep's blood. Tear drop shaped
Differentiating point of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Cardiobacterium hominis
Corroding bacilli; part of the gingival or bowel flora; non saccharolytic; caused of mixed infection from bites or clenched-fists wound; may pit or corrode the agar surface (BAP) with sharp odor of bleach. Catalase -; oxidase +
Caused by sub-acute bacterial endocarditis HACEK; may put the agar surface; short, plump coccobacilli with squared ends; catalase - and oxidase +
Morphology of kingella Kingae
Small with small zone of hemolysis
Differentiating point of Kingella Kingae and Eikenella corrodens
Cannot grow on Mac and XLD but can grow on CAP and BAP.
Tiny fastidious rods; normal flora of the vagina; NM; NE; gram -; Cause of Bacterial vaginosis; occasionally causes neonatal sepsis and postpartum bacteremia; common blood isolate postpartum and post abortal fever.
Other name of Gerdnerella vaginalis
Haemophilus vaginalis or Cornyebacterium vaginale
Culture of Gerdnerella vaginalis on CAP
Clinical manifestation of G.vaginalis
Malodor/leukorrhea/putritis/excessive vaginal discharge
pH is more than 4.5
presence of Clue cells
Based on Amsel and nugent scoring systems used to diagnose BV: presence of clue cells.
Based on Amsel and nugent scoring systems used to diagnose BV: 10%KOH- fishy amine like odor.
Whiff or Schiff test
Culture: selective medium for G.vaginalis
Colistin Oxolinic Acid Blood Agar
Culture: production of beta-hemolysis
Human Blood Tween Agar
Culture: specific medium of G.vaginalis, opaque and doomed after 48 hrs of incubation
Overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina including:
G.vaginalis, Gerdnerella mobiluncus, Mycoplasma hominis
Proteolysis producing nitrous products such as putrescine and Cadaverine.
Transmitted thru animal bites; uses bipolar stain "safety pin"; grows on BAP but not on Mac; oxidase and catalase + except P.bettyae; urease, indole, ONPG +; part of the animal flora; require organic nitrogen sources; glucose fermenters; facultative anaerobe; NM, gm- may range from coccobacilli to long filamentous rods.
Virulence factor of Pasteurella.
Endotoxins and capsule
Pasteurella is associated with RIT including..
Sinusitis, pneumonia, pulmonary disease and bronchitis
Small, gm -, NS coccobacilli with bipolar staining features; most important pathogen to humans. Mushroom smell characteristics; musty odor; grows only on BAP; oxidase, ODC and INDOLE +; urease and ONPG -; commensals in the URT of many livestock, poultry, domestic pets ( cats and dogs), cause pneumonia. Susceptible to penicillin, tetracycline or chloramphenicol. Shipping fever on cattles
Most common Pasteurella infection
Coccobacilli; oblique aerobe; NM except B.bronchiseptica; oxidase + except B.parapertusis; urease + except B.pertusis;
Culture of Bordetella
Smooth, glistening, silver in color becomes whitish gray with age.
Growth factors of Bordetella.
Nicotinic acid, cysteine, methionine
Virulence factors of Bordetella
Pertusis toxins, adenylate Cyclase, tracheal cytotoxin and dermonecrotic toxin, pentratin and fimbriae
Bordet Gengou bacillus; pearl like or metallic colonies; oblique aerobe; NM except B.bronchiseptica, NS, hemolytic org. Gm - minute coccobacilli
Culture in B.pertusis: transport medium
Stuart's medium Mishullow's charcoal agar
Culture in B.pertusis: potato blood glycerol
Bordet Gengou medium
Culture in B.pertusis: charcoal and yeast extract
Jones Kendrick charcoal agar
Culture in B.pertusis: charcoal and horse blood
Culture in B.pertusis: preferred because it contains horse blood, charcoal, cephalexin and amphotericin
Charcoal Cephalexin Blood Agar
Disease in B.pertusis
Virulence factor in b.pertusis
Transmission of B.pertusis
3 disease stages: runny nose, mucous membrane inflammation.
3 stages of disease: continuous cough with end in the respiratory tract. Severe and violent coughing. Associated with vomiting and whooping. May last for 6 weeks.
3 disease stages: may last long for about 6 moths after infection.
Pathogenicity of B.pertusis: toxins and enzymes
Pertusis toxin, hemaglutinins, adenylate cyclase, heat labile toxin, lps, heat stable toxin, tracheal cytotoxin
Ideal specimens used in B.pertusis.
Nasopharyngeal asparites and swab
NM, urease and oxidase and citrate +, nitrate -; large colonies with a brown pigment on the Bordet gengou agar, milder form of B.pertusis-like symptoms. Kennel cough
M, urease and oxidase -, citrate and nitrate +, causes septicemia, inhabitants of URT of canines
Highly infectious; requires cysteine for growth. Classified as bacterium tullarense, Brucellan tularensis and pasteurella tularensis, jellison type A. Causative agent of Tularemia
Minute, highly pleomorphic, NM, gm- coco bacilli, intracellular, oblique aerobe, encapsulated, NS, weakly catalas + and oxidase -;
Virulence factor of francisella tularensis
Focal ulcer at the site of entry of the organism and enlargement of lymph nodes.
Deerfly or rabbit fever.
Specimens used in F. Tularensis
Sputum, scrapings from infected ulcer and limo node biopsies
Culture of F.tularensis
Slowly growing org. 2-4 days of colony fermentation. Cysteine heart agar/ glycogen cysteine blood agar/ peptone cysteine agar
Normal flora of the animals; normal flora of the URT and GIT of sheep, cattles, pigs and dogs. NM, NE, strict aerobe,gm- coccobacilli, intracellular, gamma hemolytic on bap, appear singly, pair or in short chains, catalase oxidase urease nitrate +, h2s + except b.canis. Infected human through contact with infected animals or animals products.
Bangs Bacillus; epidemic abortion of cattles.
Epidemic abortion of swine
Affecting sheep or goat; causes undulant/Malta/Gibraltar/Mediterranean/Crimean/Maltese/rock fever which is transferred to man through infected milk from goats. Does not produce h2s nor require CO2 and not inhibited by thionine or fuschin; killed by pasteurization; resistance to heat.
Specimen used in Brucella
Bone marrow, blood, tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage
A bisphasic bottle for blood culture W or Wisconsin medium
Causative agent of Legionnaire's disease; facultative intracellular pathogen. Faintly staining, thing gm-; majority M; catalas and oxidase weakly +, gelatinase +; will not grow on primary plated media; requires medium with L-cysteine buffered to pH 6.9BCYE
Most common pathogen to human; part of the natural microbial community of soil and aquatic; isolated in aircondition dusts, cooling towers, warm-water plumbing system, humidifiers, nebulizers, shower heads
Wiga's agent of pneumonia.
Clinical manifestation of Legionella
Specimen used in legionella.
Sputum, blood and lung biopsy material, bronchial wash, pleural fluid.
Brown pigment characteristics/BCYE; may exhibit gray-white to blue-green convex colonies with cut glass type of internal granular speckling
Feeley Gorman Agar
Specimen used for the enterobacteriaceae
Stool, blood, urine, rectal swab
BAP AND CAP
Large, gray, smooth colonies
XLD and HEA
Useful for salmonella and shigella sp
For detection of salmonella