SMALL PLEOMORPHIC GRAM NEG BACILLI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SMALL PLEOMORPHIC GRAM NEG BACILLI Deck (90):
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Gram - coccobacilli or bacilli; NM; NS and requires factor present in the blood for adequate growth; facultative anaerobe; oxidase +; catalase +(h.influenzae,h.haemolyticus); ferments CHO.

Haemophilus

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Do not need growth factor.

Haemophilus aphrophilus

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Preferred incubation on Haemophilus.

33-37C at 5-10% CO2

3

Haemophilus are identified thru.

Hemolytic reaction on horse blood agar, CHO fermentation tests and growth requirement for X and V factor.

4

Considered normal indigenous flora of the upper respiratory tract. Encapsulated.

Haemophilus influenzae

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Virulence factor of Haemophilus influenzae

Polysaccharide capsules

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Reaction of H.influenzae

Nonhemolytic reaction on horse or rabbit blood agar; rapidly killed by phagocytes.

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Culture media used on H.influenzae.

Filded enriched media, levinthal agar, BAP and CAP.

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Result of Filded enriched media, levinthal agar, BAP and CAP in h.influenzae

Colorless, transparent or dew drop colonies. Beta lactamase + control

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Capsular characteristics.

Typeable

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Do not produce capsule; normal inhabitants of URT. Causes Otitis media and acute bronchitis.

Nontypeable

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Latex particle agglutination. ELISA

Serology test

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Detects enzyme that converts aminolevulinic acid into porphyrin.

Porphyrin test

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Disease of H.influenzae

Laryngitis, Fetal meningitis of children and other pediatric disease, Otitis media

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Koch-weeks Bacillus; closely resembles h.influenzae bio type 3; Brazilian purpuric fever which affects children.

Haemophilus aegypticus

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Grows on CAP and horse blood agar but not on the sheep blood agar.

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

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Mistaken as S.pyogenes because of its beta hemolytic activity on BAP.

Haemophilus hemolyticus

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Chancroid bacillus/Ducreyi's Bacillus. Agent of sexually transmitted disease chancroid. Not part of the human flora. Causative agent of ulcerative venereal disease, soft chancre/chancroid (genital lesions)

Haemophilus Ducreyi

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Specimen used in Haemophilus Ducreyi.

Ulcer exudate or bubo aspirate

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Microscopic appearance of Haemphilus Ducreyi

Pleomorphic

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Characteristics of HACEK group of bacteria

Requirements of 5-10% of CO2 for growth. Caused sub-acute bacterial endocarditis. Blood + and Mac -.

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Low pathogenecity; Do not require X and V factors for growth. Oxidase and catalase -.

Haemophilus aphrophilus

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Normal flora of human oral cavity; destructive periodontitis; catalase +; oxidase -; + nitrate reduction; Requires CAP; very short, gram - bacilli. Star shaped bacilli

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

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Catalase and oxidase +; pleomorphic; gram - rod with one round end and one tapered end. Tends to form clusters or rossettes from 5% sheep's blood. Tear drop shaped

Cardiobacterium hominis

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Differentiating point of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Cardiobacterium hominis

Oxidase test

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Corroding bacilli; part of the gingival or bowel flora; non saccharolytic; caused of mixed infection from bites or clenched-fists wound; may pit or corrode the agar surface (BAP) with sharp odor of bleach. Catalase -; oxidase +

Eikenella corrodens

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Caused by sub-acute bacterial endocarditis HACEK; may put the agar surface; short, plump coccobacilli with squared ends; catalase - and oxidase +

Kingella Kingae

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Morphology of kingella Kingae

Small with small zone of hemolysis

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Differentiating point of Kingella Kingae and Eikenella corrodens

Cannot grow on Mac and XLD but can grow on CAP and BAP.

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Tiny fastidious rods; normal flora of the vagina; NM; NE; gram -; Cause of Bacterial vaginosis; occasionally causes neonatal sepsis and postpartum bacteremia; common blood isolate postpartum and post abortal fever.

Gerdnerella vaginalis

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Other name of Gerdnerella vaginalis

Haemophilus vaginalis or Cornyebacterium vaginale

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Culture of Gerdnerella vaginalis on CAP

Grayish colonies

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Clinical manifestation of G.vaginalis

Malodor/leukorrhea/putritis/excessive vaginal discharge
pH is more than 4.5
presence of Clue cells

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Based on Amsel and nugent scoring systems used to diagnose BV: presence of clue cells.

Cytology/Pap's

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Based on Amsel and nugent scoring systems used to diagnose BV: 10%KOH- fishy amine like odor.

Whiff or Schiff test

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Culture: selective medium for G.vaginalis

Colistin Oxolinic Acid Blood Agar

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Culture: production of beta-hemolysis

Human Blood Tween Agar

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Culture: specific medium of G.vaginalis, opaque and doomed after 48 hrs of incubation

V agar

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Overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina including:

G.vaginalis, Gerdnerella mobiluncus, Mycoplasma hominis

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Proteolysis producing nitrous products such as putrescine and Cadaverine.

Clue cells

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Transmitted thru animal bites; uses bipolar stain "safety pin"; grows on BAP but not on Mac; oxidase and catalase + except P.bettyae; urease, indole, ONPG +; part of the animal flora; require organic nitrogen sources; glucose fermenters; facultative anaerobe; NM, gm- may range from coccobacilli to long filamentous rods.

Pastreurella

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Virulence factor of Pasteurella.

Endotoxins and capsule

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Pasteurella is associated with RIT including..

Sinusitis, pneumonia, pulmonary disease and bronchitis

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Small, gm -, NS coccobacilli with bipolar staining features; most important pathogen to humans. Mushroom smell characteristics; musty odor; grows only on BAP; oxidase, ODC and INDOLE +; urease and ONPG -; commensals in the URT of many livestock, poultry, domestic pets ( cats and dogs), cause pneumonia. Susceptible to penicillin, tetracycline or chloramphenicol. Shipping fever on cattles

Pasteurella multocida

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Most common Pasteurella infection

Wound infection

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Coccobacilli; oblique aerobe; NM except B.bronchiseptica; oxidase + except B.parapertusis; urease + except B.pertusis;

Bordetella

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Culture of Bordetella

Smooth, glistening, silver in color becomes whitish gray with age.

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Growth factors of Bordetella.

Nicotinic acid, cysteine, methionine

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Virulence factors of Bordetella

Pertusis toxins, adenylate Cyclase, tracheal cytotoxin and dermonecrotic toxin, pentratin and fimbriae

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Bordet Gengou bacillus; pearl like or metallic colonies; oblique aerobe; NM except B.bronchiseptica, NS, hemolytic org. Gm - minute coccobacilli

Bordetella pertusis

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Culture in B.pertusis: transport medium

Stuart's medium Mishullow's charcoal agar

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Culture in B.pertusis: potato blood glycerol

Bordet Gengou medium

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Culture in B.pertusis: charcoal and yeast extract

Jones Kendrick charcoal agar

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Culture in B.pertusis: charcoal and horse blood

Regan-Lowe medium

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Culture in B.pertusis: preferred because it contains horse blood, charcoal, cephalexin and amphotericin

Charcoal Cephalexin Blood Agar

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Disease in B.pertusis

Whooping cough

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Virulence factor in b.pertusis

Pertusis toxin

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Transmission of B.pertusis

Airborne

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3 disease stages: runny nose, mucous membrane inflammation.

Catarrhal stage

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3 stages of disease: continuous cough with end in the respiratory tract. Severe and violent coughing. Associated with vomiting and whooping. May last for 6 weeks.

Paroxysmal stage

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3 disease stages: may last long for about 6 moths after infection.

Convalescent stage

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Pathogenicity of B.pertusis: toxins and enzymes

Pertusis toxin, hemaglutinins, adenylate cyclase, heat labile toxin, lps, heat stable toxin, tracheal cytotoxin

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Ideal specimens used in B.pertusis.

Nasopharyngeal asparites and swab

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NM, urease and oxidase and citrate +, nitrate -; large colonies with a brown pigment on the Bordet gengou agar, milder form of B.pertusis-like symptoms. Kennel cough

Bordetella parapertusis

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M, urease and oxidase -, citrate and nitrate +, causes septicemia, inhabitants of URT of canines

B. Bronchiseptica

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Highly infectious; requires cysteine for growth. Classified as bacterium tullarense, Brucellan tularensis and pasteurella tularensis, jellison type A. Causative agent of Tularemia

Francisella tularensis

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Minute, highly pleomorphic, NM, gm- coco bacilli, intracellular, oblique aerobe, encapsulated, NS, weakly catalas + and oxidase -;

Francisella tularensis

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Virulence factor of francisella tularensis

Capsules

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Focal ulcer at the site of entry of the organism and enlargement of lymph nodes.

Deerfly or rabbit fever.

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Specimens used in F. Tularensis

Sputum, scrapings from infected ulcer and limo node biopsies

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Culture of F.tularensis

Slowly growing org. 2-4 days of colony fermentation. Cysteine heart agar/ glycogen cysteine blood agar/ peptone cysteine agar

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Normal flora of the animals; normal flora of the URT and GIT of sheep, cattles, pigs and dogs. NM, NE, strict aerobe,gm- coccobacilli, intracellular, gamma hemolytic on bap, appear singly, pair or in short chains, catalase oxidase urease nitrate +, h2s + except b.canis. Infected human through contact with infected animals or animals products.

Brucella

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Bangs Bacillus; epidemic abortion of cattles.

Brucella abortus

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Epidemic abortion of swine

Brucella suis

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Affecting dogs

Brucella Canis

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Affecting sheep or goat; causes undulant/Malta/Gibraltar/Mediterranean/Crimean/Maltese/rock fever which is transferred to man through infected milk from goats. Does not produce h2s nor require CO2 and not inhibited by thionine or fuschin; killed by pasteurization; resistance to heat.

B. Melitensis

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Specimen used in Brucella

Bone marrow, blood, tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage

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A bisphasic bottle for blood culture W or Wisconsin medium

Castaneda technique

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Causative agent of Legionnaire's disease; facultative intracellular pathogen. Faintly staining, thing gm-; majority M; catalas and oxidase weakly +, gelatinase +; will not grow on primary plated media; requires medium with L-cysteine buffered to pH 6.9BCYE

Legionella

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Most common pathogen to human; part of the natural microbial community of soil and aquatic; isolated in aircondition dusts, cooling towers, warm-water plumbing system, humidifiers, nebulizers, shower heads

Legionella pneumophila

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Pittsburg pneumonia

Legionella micdadei

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Wiga's agent of pneumonia.

Legionella bozemanni

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Clinical manifestation of Legionella

Legionnaire's disease

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Specimen used in legionella.

Sputum, blood and lung biopsy material, bronchial wash, pleural fluid.

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Brown pigment characteristics/BCYE; may exhibit gray-white to blue-green convex colonies with cut glass type of internal granular speckling

Feeley Gorman Agar

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Specimen used for the enterobacteriaceae

Stool, blood, urine, rectal swab

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BAP AND CAP

Large, gray, smooth colonies

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XLD and HEA

Useful for salmonella and shigella sp

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BSA

For detection of salmonella

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Swarm on BAP AND CAP

P.mirabilis, P.vulgaris, P.penneri