Flashcards in Grammar Deck (27)
What is nominative case?
Basic form of a word
What is genitive case used for?
to show possession, or used with postpositions
How do you form the singular genitive case?
mostly add -n; to foreign words ending in consonant, add -in; some irregular endings
How do you form the singular partitive case?
add -a or -ä for words ending in a single vowel; add -ta or -tä for words ending in two vowels or a consonant; add -tta or -ttä for words ending in e
When do you use the partitive?
Use for part of something, non-countable items, or after words that express quantity or amount. Also used in expressions such as "opposite the theater": teatteria vastapäätä
How do you form the imperative, polite form of a verb?
Add -kaa or -kää to the stem of the present tense of the verb.
How do you form the imperative, informal form of a verb?
Same as the stem of the present tense of the verb.
What case do you use to show something is in something?
What case do you use for part of something, non-countable items, or after words that express quantity or amount?
Can a Finnish word end in two consonants?
Which stem does the partitive ending attach to - the vowel stem or the consonant stem?
The consonant stem. The partitive ending does not require a vowel before it.
Does the inessive case ending have to have a vowel or a consonant before it?
What is the inessive ending?
-ssa or -ssä
What case ending is used for possession?
What case do you use with "vieressä"?
What case do you use for part of something?
What is the genitive ending?
Single letter n, attached to the stem that has a vowel.
What consonants are affected by consonant gradation?
k, p, and t
In consonant gradation, what happens to kk?
In consonant gradation, what happens to pp?
In consonant gradation, what happens to tt?
In consonant gradation, what happens to t?
What are two cases whose endings cause consonant gradation?
Genitive (n) and inessive (ssa or ssä)
When do you need a hyphen in a compound word, and what effect does it have on pronunciation?
When the last vowel of the first word is the same as the first vowel of the second word. The hyphen signals a brief interruption in airflow between the two words.
What case shows that something is in something, and how do you form it?
Inessive, -ssa or -ssä
What case shows that something is out of something, and how do you form it?
Elative, -sta or -stä