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Finnish - Naomi's decks > Grammar > Flashcards

Flashcards in Grammar Deck (27)
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1
Q

What is nominative case?

A

Basic form of a word

2
Q

What is genitive case used for?

A

to show possession, or used with postpositions

3
Q

How do you form the singular genitive case?

A

mostly add -n; to foreign words ending in consonant, add -in; some irregular endings

4
Q

How do you form the singular partitive case?

A

add -a or -ä for words ending in a single vowel; add -ta or -tä for words ending in two vowels or a consonant; add -tta or -ttä for words ending in e

5
Q

When do you use the partitive?

A

Use for part of something, non-countable items, or after words that express quantity or amount. Also used in expressions such as “opposite the theater”: teatteria vastapäätä

6
Q

How do you form the imperative, polite form of a verb?

A

Add -kaa or -kää to the stem of the present tense of the verb.

7
Q

How do you form the imperative, informal form of a verb?

A

Same as the stem of the present tense of the verb.

8
Q

What case do you use to show something is in something?

A

Inessive case

9
Q

What case do you use for part of something, non-countable items, or after words that express quantity or amount?

A

Partitive

10
Q

Can a Finnish word end in two consonants?

A

No

11
Q

Which stem does the partitive ending attach to - the vowel stem or the consonant stem?

A

The consonant stem. The partitive ending does not require a vowel before it.

12
Q

Does the inessive case ending have to have a vowel or a consonant before it?

A

Vowel

13
Q

What is the inessive ending?

A

-ssa or -ssä

14
Q

What case ending is used for possession?

A

genitive

15
Q

What case do you use with “vieressä”?

A

genitive

16
Q

What case do you use for part of something?

A

partitive

17
Q

What is the genitive ending?

A

Single letter n, attached to the stem that has a vowel.

18
Q

What consonants are affected by consonant gradation?

A

k, p, and t

19
Q

In consonant gradation, what happens to kk?

A

Becomes k

20
Q

In consonant gradation, what happens to pp?

A

Becomes p

21
Q

In consonant gradation, what happens to tt?

A

Becomes t

22
Q

In consonant gradation, what happens to t?

A

Becomes d

23
Q

What are two cases whose endings cause consonant gradation?

A

Genitive (n) and inessive (ssa or ssä)

24
Q

When do you need a hyphen in a compound word, and what effect does it have on pronunciation?

A

When the last vowel of the first word is the same as the first vowel of the second word. The hyphen signals a brief interruption in airflow between the two words.

25
Q

What case shows that something is in something, and how do you form it?

A

Inessive, -ssa or -ssä

26
Q

What case shows that something is out of something, and how do you form it?

A

Elative, -sta or -stä

27
Q

What case shows that something is going into something, and how do you form it?

A

Illative, double vowel plus -n