Flashcards in Group decision making Deck (43)
give an example of when the wisdom of crowds is seen in real life
meetings to make collective decisions such as a jury in a trial case > they discover the right course of action
what defines small group decision making?
3-6 people completing short tasks usually face to face
Hill (1982) says in group function there is evidence of both process ____ and process ____
how accurately do groups perform?
most of the time at the accuracy of the second best member of the group (underperform to the strongest member of the group)
what are the 4 factors that make comparing groups across different experiments hard?
task type, standards of comparison, coordination methods, individual differences
what are the different task types?
intellective vs. judgement tasks, well-defined vs. ill-defined tasks (tasks that require insight? background knowledge? provoke strong intuitions/emotions/biases?)
what is the difference between well-defined and ill-defined tasks?
well defined = something with a clear success metric, ill defined = no clear strategy of how to solve the task
usually avoid testing tasks that require what?
how you decide whether a group decision was good or bad =
standards of comparison
where the collective group outcome lies higher than the performance of the best individual =
what are the 4 coordination methods?
averaging, 'Delphi', dictator method, discussion
no group process with no discussion just the average answer of each group member = ?
get info from everyone and then adjust to average answer of the group = ?
pick best individual to answer = ?
consensus, dialectic method with back and forth giving reasons between the group to persuade each other = ?
how are individual differences seen in groups?
members have different sources of information, abilities and capacities
who developed the 'lens model of decision making'?
Gigone & Hastie
what model looked at clues about the world to construct a representation and different member judgements are combined to lead to a group judgement?
lens model of decision making
Snirzek & Henry proposed that consensus is met by doing what 2 things?
revision and weighting
what someone else says changes your own judgement =
when does averaging work?
when independent estimates have uncorrelated errors, no systematic biases and no coordination between group members
averaging is a phenomenon that works best when there is no group _______
if each individual has ____ in their judgement but it isn't correlated between individuals then it will average out and give a better estimate of the true value
what prevents errors from being uncorrelated?
when someone has a strong intuition (need to have noise spread around the true value)
what things cause correlated errors?
limited info, individual bias, strong intuition, group conformity
polarisation in group decision making where a group become obsessed with a single answer often defined by most influential members of group =
what causes groupthink to happen?
overconfidence, blindness to errors, conformity > lead to skewed decision making
what are criticisms of groupthink?
not a distinct phenomenon? > may be a series of phenomenon, doesn't happen > a lot more limited than textbooks say
reason evolved to produce and evaluate arguments in groups not for individuals to solve problems = what type of account?