Flashcards in Skill Deck (51)
Stroop task: paradigm = _______, instruction = _________, condition = ________, measure = __________, conclusion = __________
stroop, colour-naming, conflict, speed and accuracy, word reading is automatic which interferes with controlled colour naming
what does the troop task explain?
the stroop task is one of several conflict tasks. list some of the others
flanker, simon, go/no task
what is a conflict task?
conflicts between control processes and automatic processes
respond to the central arrow and this is harder when arrows go in other way to the central arrow = what conflict task?
(> > < > >)
look at centre screen and push the named button with left or right hand = which conflict task?
give an example of a real life conflict task
handle on push doors (handle suggests to brain that you should pull) > crash bars on doors have opposite effect of a conflict task and show congruency
explain how we can use the stroop task to test different aspects of automaticity
can investigate the nature of automatic processing as its an example of a generic type of task, experimenting with its conditions help us understand the nature of automatic processing
can anything become automatic?
what did MacLeod and Dunbar (1988) finding on their study of training on the stoop task to see if anything can become automatic?
after extensive training shapes become automatic and interfere with the controlled process of naming colours. found that shape naming becomes automatic with extensive training. evidence that a process is neither completely automatic or controlled. automaticity is on a continuum
are automatic processes just faster?
what manipulation did Glaser and Glaser (1988) conduct to test whether automatic processes are faster than controlled?
Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) manipulation
what were the results from the SOA manipulation (Glaser and Glaser)?
no amount of head start for colour information produced interference on word reading, no reverse stroop effect found, there is more to automaticity than just speed of processing
do automatic processes operate independent of attention?
what did Besner er al find when only one letter of a coloured word was coloured in?
stroop effect was eliminated
what did Besner and Stolz find when one letter of a coloured word was cued?
stroop effect was reduced or eliminated
what did the attentional manipulations (to see if automatic processes operated independent of attention) change?
how you allocate your attention. By focusing on one bit of the stimulus you won't show the stroop effect as it seems to only happen when there is broader attention on the whole word
How do response factors affect automaticity?
stimulus-response links are central
what did Durgin (2000) find when asking ppts to point to colour patches when given a colour category word?
ppts could name the colours without being influenced by the word but when asked to name the word were influenced by the colours. response compatibility is key to automaticity. it is not just a sensory process but about the ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN STIMULUS AND RESPONSE
what are good examples of automatic processes and are thought to be similar to habits?
what are the features of habits?
over learnt stimulus response pairs, triggered by environment, rapid, stereotyped, inflexible, ballistic
Bebko said when a skill develops the automatic and controlled components of the performance emerge _______
as skill develops what gets greater?
the automatic and controlled components of the skill
what features make a skill MORE habit like?
highly practiced, fast, low attention demands
what features make a skill LESS habit like?
sequenced, flexible, intended
give an example of a skill that gives insights into controlled and automatic processes
typing (highly skilled and has automatic components)
what part of typing is the automatic process and what part is the controlled process?
automatic = pressing keys, controlled = what you choose to type out
what were the results from Logan and Crump's (2010) study?
when ppts had an error corrected they said they hadn't made any errors and didn't notice, when told they had made an error when they hadn't they believed it, showed a measure of sensitivity to errors. ppts slowed when they made a real error but not when they were told they did but didn't
what were Logan and Crump's conclusions?
typing skill is controlled by hierarchical loops (outer and inner) and each loop is sensitive to different forms of feedback