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Flashcards in Skill Deck (51)
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1

Stroop task: paradigm = _______, instruction = _________, condition = ________, measure = __________, conclusion = __________

stroop, colour-naming, conflict, speed and accuracy, word reading is automatic which interferes with controlled colour naming

2

what does the troop task explain?

automatic processing

3

the stroop task is one of several conflict tasks. list some of the others

flanker, simon, go/no task

4

what is a conflict task?

conflicts between control processes and automatic processes

5

respond to the central arrow and this is harder when arrows go in other way to the central arrow = what conflict task?

flanker
(> > < > >)

6

look at centre screen and push the named button with left or right hand = which conflict task?

simon

7

give an example of a real life conflict task

handle on push doors (handle suggests to brain that you should pull) > crash bars on doors have opposite effect of a conflict task and show congruency

8

explain how we can use the stroop task to test different aspects of automaticity

can investigate the nature of automatic processing as its an example of a generic type of task, experimenting with its conditions help us understand the nature of automatic processing

9

can anything become automatic?

yes

10

what did MacLeod and Dunbar (1988) finding on their study of training on the stoop task to see if anything can become automatic?

after extensive training shapes become automatic and interfere with the controlled process of naming colours. found that shape naming becomes automatic with extensive training. evidence that a process is neither completely automatic or controlled. automaticity is on a continuum

11

are automatic processes just faster?

no

12

what manipulation did Glaser and Glaser (1988) conduct to test whether automatic processes are faster than controlled?

Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) manipulation

13

what were the results from the SOA manipulation (Glaser and Glaser)?

no amount of head start for colour information produced interference on word reading, no reverse stroop effect found, there is more to automaticity than just speed of processing

14

do automatic processes operate independent of attention?

no

15

what did Besner er al find when only one letter of a coloured word was coloured in?

stroop effect was eliminated

16

what did Besner and Stolz find when one letter of a coloured word was cued?

stroop effect was reduced or eliminated

17

what did the attentional manipulations (to see if automatic processes operated independent of attention) change?

how you allocate your attention. By focusing on one bit of the stimulus you won't show the stroop effect as it seems to only happen when there is broader attention on the whole word

18

How do response factors affect automaticity?

stimulus-response links are central

19

what did Durgin (2000) find when asking ppts to point to colour patches when given a colour category word?

ppts could name the colours without being influenced by the word but when asked to name the word were influenced by the colours. response compatibility is key to automaticity. it is not just a sensory process but about the ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN STIMULUS AND RESPONSE

20

what are good examples of automatic processes and are thought to be similar to habits?

skills

21

what are the features of habits?

over learnt stimulus response pairs, triggered by environment, rapid, stereotyped, inflexible, ballistic

22

Bebko said when a skill develops the automatic and controlled components of the performance emerge _______

together

23

as skill develops what gets greater?

the automatic and controlled components of the skill

24

what features make a skill MORE habit like?

highly practiced, fast, low attention demands

25

what features make a skill LESS habit like?

sequenced, flexible, intended

26

give an example of a skill that gives insights into controlled and automatic processes

typing (highly skilled and has automatic components)

27

what part of typing is the automatic process and what part is the controlled process?

automatic = pressing keys, controlled = what you choose to type out

28

what were the results from Logan and Crump's (2010) study?

when ppts had an error corrected they said they hadn't made any errors and didn't notice, when told they had made an error when they hadn't they believed it, showed a measure of sensitivity to errors. ppts slowed when they made a real error but not when they were told they did but didn't

29

what were Logan and Crump's conclusions?

typing skill is controlled by hierarchical loops (outer and inner) and each loop is sensitive to different forms of feedback

30

comprehension and generation (choosing words to type) = which loop?

outer