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Flashcards in GU Deck (30):
1

A 60 year old male presents to the clinic complaining of low back pain, painful urination, increased frequency, and also states that it hurts with sex and especially during ejaculation. Which of the following therapies represents the best choice for this patient?

acute bacterial prostatitis is generally caused by gram-negative rods (E. coli, Pseudomonas). Fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice, especially in elderly patients, when the patient presents with signs and symptoms of prostatitis.

2

medical management of benign prostate hypertrophy

α-blocker (terazosin)
- 5α-reductase inhibitor (finasteride)

3

what lab and US findings shows chronic kidney disease compared to acute

hemoglobin low (8) and small kidneys

4

surgical management of benign prostate hypertrophy

transurethral resection (TURP)

5

how do the GFR and creatinine values change depending on early and advanced renal disease?

Early renal disease: large change in GFR but little change in creatinine
- Advanced renal disease: large change in creatinine but little change in GFR

6

what are normal GFR values

below 60 is

7

what are normal creatinine values

1 is normal, bigger number function gets worse

8

small changes of creatinine within the normal range (1.2 to 1.6) shows what

big damage is being done, much bigger deal than 6 to 7 jump

9

BUN:Cr ratio – high is what type of acute kidney injury

prerenal failure

10

pre renal failure -tx

treat shock, volume replace or septic give antibiotics

11

Glomerulonephritis shows what on Urine analysis

Urinalysis: RBC casts

12

treatment of Glomerulonephritis

Treatment: steroids, immune suppressants

13

two intrinsic renal dz

Glomerulonephritis (filter is plugs by immune complexes)

14

symptoms of Glomerulonephritis (filters is clogged)

HTN, Edema and little urine

15

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

when kidney gets poisoned and doesn't get oxygen. the cells start to die. most of these patients started with acute pre-renal failure and now have crossed over and cells are damaged.

16

patient has strep throat and then gets puffy eyes, coke cola urine, what is the dx

Glomerulonephritis

17

what is the leading cause of renal AKI

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

18

what are the two type of Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

ischemic (90%) and toxic

19

numbers that show the transition from _____ to ______
High urine Na+
BUN:Cr ratio – low

from pre renal to are ishemic acute tubular necrosis

20

non-oliguric, contrast agents, toxic alcohols,
aminoglycosides, myoglobin

are all causes of acute kidney injury

21

Diabetes insipidus is a side effect of what medication?

lithium

22

Axis III is reserved for

medical conditions

23

why must you ask about last dose of metformin before deciding on dx imaging?

Given this patient’s history, determining when the last dose of metformin was taken is critical prior to performing any studies using contrast dye. Contrast dye decreases the kidney’s ability to excrete metformin, and therefore increases the risk of lactic acidosis, a side effect seen with metformin therapy.

24

Which of the following pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy affects the levels of prostate specific antigen?

Finasteride
5-alpha reductase inhibitors can have an affect in reducing the PSA levels.

25

Asymptomatic microhematuria is best evaluated using....

CT Urography

26

Which of the following causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis?

diarrhea

27

This is a type II 5-alpha reductase inhibitor which inhibits DHT and thus growth of the prostate and is indicated in this type of patient. It does not affect blood pressure.

Finasteride

28

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is only used for stones bigger than _____ mm

10mm

29

crushing injury, CK is 5x greater than normal, cola color urine, dip is positive for blood, what is the dx?

Rhabdomyolysis

30

top causes of chronic kidney dz

glomerulonephritis, DM, HTN