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Flashcards in Hallmark Findings Deck (152):
1

Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation

Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)

2

Antiplatelet antibodies

ideopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

3

Arachnodactyly

Marfan's

4

Aschoff Bodies

Rheumatic Fever

5

Auer Rods

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)

6

Autosplenectomy

Sickle Cell Anemia --switch a glu -->val in β chain (Low O2 ↑ sickling)
Other features:
-Low O2 ↑ sickling
-Aplastic crisis w/ B19 (Parvovirus ssDNA) infection
-Salmonella osteomyelitis
- Vaso-occlusive painful crisises
-Hydroxyurea as Txt (↑ HbF) & Bone marrow transplant

7

Babinski

UMN lesion, normal < 1 yr of age

8

Basophilic Stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning

9

Bence Jones Protein

Multiple myeloma
Waldenstrom'’s macroglobinemia

10

Birbeck Granules

Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)

11

Blue Bloater

Chronic Bronchitis (at least 3 months for at least 2 years of ecessive mucus secretion & chronic
recurrent productive cough)

12

Boot-shaped heart

Tetrology of Fallot

13

Bouchard's Nodes

Osteoarthritis (Proximal IP joint of the fingers)

14

Boutonniere’s Deformity

Rheumatoid arthritis- flex proximal & extend distal IP joints

15

Brown Tumor

Hyperparathyroidism

16

Brushfield Spots

Down's Syndrome

17

Call-Exner Bodies

-Granulosa cell tumor: associated w/ endometrial hyperplasia & carcinoma
-Granuloma-Theca cell tumor

18

Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy

Chagas’ Disease

19

Chancre

Primary Syphilis...painless

20

Chancroid

Haemophilus ducreyi (aka Chancroid)...painful!

21

Charcot Triad

Multiple Sclerosis
Triad is: nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech

22

Charcot-Leyden Crystals

Bronchial asthma

23

Cheyne-Stokes Breathing

Cerebral lesion--
Breathing pattern-- oscillation of ventilation between apnea and hyperpnea with a crescendo-diminuendo pattern

24

Chocolate Cysts

Endometriosis
-- cysts aka endometrioma

25

Chvostek’s Sign

Hypocalcemia
-- facial spasm in tetany

26

Clue Cells

Gardernella vaginitis

27

Codman's Triangle

Osteosarcoma

28

Cold Agglutinins

Infectious mononucleosis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

29

Condyloma Lata

Secondary Syphilis

30

Cotton Wool Spots

-HTN
-Aka, cytoid bodies seen w/ SLE (yellowish cotton wool fundal lesions)

31

Councilman Bodies

-Hep B
-Yellow Fever
--dying hepatocytes

32

Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule

Rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)

33

Currant-Jelly Sputum

Klebsiella pneumoniae

34

Curschmann's Sprial

Bronchial Asthma

35

Depigmentation of the Substantia Nigra

Parkinson's Disease

36

Donovan Bodies

Granuloma inguinale (STD)--caused by Klebsiella granulomatis characterized by ulcerative genital lesions.

37

Eburnation

Osteoarthritis
--polished, ivory-like appearance of bone

38

Ectopia Lentis

Marfan's

39

Erythema Chronicum Migrans

Lyme Disease

40

Fatty Liver

Alcoholism

41

Ferruginous Bodies

Asbestosis - & Iron laden
-- appear as small brown nodules in the septum of the alveolus

42

Ghon Focus / Complex

Tuberculosis (1° & 2°, respectively)

43

Glitter Cells

Pyelonephritis
--neutrophils that are found in the urine

44

Gower's Manuever

Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
--using arms to stand

45

Heberden’s Nodes

Osteoarthritis (Distal IP joint of the fingers)

46

Heinz Bodies

G6PD Deficiency

47

Heterophile Antibodies

EBV mononucleosis

48

Hirano Bodies

Alzheimer's Disease
--ntracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons

49

Hypersegmented PMNs

Megaloblastic Anemia

50

Hypochromic Microcytic Anemia

Iron deficiency or beta-thalassemia

51

Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction

Syphilis
--over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis

52

Joint Mice

Osteoarthritis
--fractured osteophytes

53

Kussmaul Breathing

Acidosis / Diabetic Ketoacidosis
--deep rapid breathing

54

Keratin Pearls

Squamous Cell CA of skin
-Actinic Keratosis is a precursor

55

Keyser-Fleischer Ring

Wilson’s Disease
- brown ring on the edge of the iris

56

Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules

Diabetic Nephropathy
--Nodular Glomerulosclerosis nodules of mesangial matrix

57

Koilocytes

HPV 6 & 11 (condyloma acuminatum - benign) and HPV 16 & 18 (malignant association)

58

Koplik's Spots

Measles
-- lesions on buccal mucosa

59

Lewy Bodies

Parkinson's Disease
--eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells

60

Lines of Zahn

Arterial Thrombus

61

Lisch Nodules

Type 1 Neurofibromatosis
-- pigmented iris hamartomas

62

Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis – prototype of nephritic syndrome

63

Mallory Bodies

Alcoholic hepatitis

64

McBurney's Sign

Appendicitis
(McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)

65

Michealis-Gutmann Bodies

Malakoplakia--lesion on bladder due to macros & calcospherites (M-G Bodies): usually due to E. Coli

66

Monoclonal Antibody Spike

aka "M protein"
1. Multiple myeloma
2. MGUS

67

Myxedema

Hypothyroidism

68

Negri Bodies

Rabies

69

Neuritic Plaques

aka senile plaques
Alzheimer Disease

70

Neurofibrillary Tangles

Alzheimer Disease

71

Non-pitting edema

1. Myxedema
2. Anthrax toxin

72

Notching of ribs

Post-ductal coarctation of Aorta

73

Nutmeg Liver

CHF--> causing congested liver

74

Owl's Eye Cells

1. CMV
2. Reed-Sternberg cells of HD--?
3. Aschoff Bodies of Rheumatic fever

75

Painless jaundice

Pancreatic cancer
of the head?

76

Pannus

Rheumatoid arthritis
-also see morning stiffnes that ↓ w/ joint use, HLA-DR4

77

Pautrier’s Microabscesses

1. Mycosis fungoides--cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
2.Sezary Syndrome

78

Philadelphia Chromosome

CML
9:22 translocation

79

Pick Bodies

Pick's disease

80

COPD--types?

1. Pink Puffer -- Type A:emphysema
2. Blue Bloater-- Type B: chronic bronchitis
--Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - α1-antitrypsin deficiency

81

Podagra

Gout
--MP joint of hallux (big toe)

82

Port-Wine Stain

Hemangioma

83

Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign

ACL tear

84

Psammoma Bodies

1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
2.Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
3. Meningioma
4. Mesothelioma

85

Pseudohypertrophy

Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy @ calf muscle bc of increased fat

86

Punched-Out Bone Lesions

Multiple myeloma

87

Rash on Palms & Soles

1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
2. Secondary Syphilis
3.Coxsackie virus infection:Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

88

Red Morning Urine

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. --would use Ham’s test to confirm.

89

Reed-Sternberg Cells

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

90

Reid Index Increased

Chronic bronchitis = ↑d ratio of bronchial gland to bronchial wall thickness

91

Reinke Crystals

Leydig Cell Tumor

92

Rouleaux Formation

Multiple Myeloma
-- RBCs stack like poker chips

93

S3 Heart Sound

1. L--> R Shunt (VSD, ASD, PDA)
2. Mitral regurg
3. LV failure

94

S4 Heart Sound

1. Pulmonary stenosis
2. Pulmonary HTN

95

Schwartzman Reaction\

Neisseria meningitidis
--impressive rash with bugs

96

Smith Antigen

1. SLE (also anti-dsDNA)-- Malar Rash, Wire loop kidney lesions, Joint pain, False (+) syphilis test (VDRL), 90% 14-45 yo females
2. also seen w/ use of INH; Procainamide; Hydralazine = SLE-like syndrome

97

Soap Bubble on X-Ray

Giant cell tumor of bone

98

Spike & Dome Glomeruli

Membranous glomerulonephritis = Nephrotic syndrome
Spike = basement membrane material & Dome = immune complex deposits (IgG orC3)

99

String Sign on X-Ray

Crohn's
- bowel wall thickening

100

Target Cells

Thalassemia

101

Tendinous Xanthomas

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

102

Thyroidization of Kidney

Chronic Pyelonephritis

103

Tophi

Gout

104

Tram-Trak Glomeruli

Membrano-proliferative glomerularnephritis

105

Trousseau's Sign

1. Visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
2. Hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
**Two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.""

106

Virchow's Node

Supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach

107

Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells

Measles

108

WBC Casts

Pyelonephritis

109

Whipple's Triad

CNS disfunction
– Hypoglycemic episodes – glu injection reverses CNS Sympt’s

110

Wire Loop Glomeruli

Lupus nephropathy, type IV (diffuse proliferative form)

111

Inc AFP in maternal serum

1. Spina Bifida
2. Anencephaly

112

Increased Uric Acid

1. Gout
2. Lesch Nyhan
3. Myeloproliferative Disorders
4.Diuretics (Loops and Thiazides)

113

Decreased FEV1/FVC

COPD

114

"Ground Glass" on Chest X-Ray

-Hyaline
Due to PCP
seen with atelectasia

115

Honey Combing of the Lung

Asbestosis (restrictive lung disease)

116

Crescents

Goodpasture's Syndrome-- pneumonia w/ hemoptysis & rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

117

Linear Ig Deposits

Goodpasture's Syndrome -- anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

118

45 Degree Branching Points

Aspergillosis (aspergillis)

119

PAS (+) Dutcher bodies

Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia= Inc IgM=hyperviscositiy

120

"Ground Glass" in Abdomen

-Hyaline
seen in the hepatocytes of healthy carriers of HBsAg in liver biopsies

121

"Signet Ring" Cells

Cells in ovaries from metastasis of Kruckenberg's tumor of the stomach

122

Ground Glass Appearance (hyaline)

1. Seen w progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy oligodendrocytes
2. Nuclei seen in Papillary Ca of the thyroid

123

Congo Red

Shows amyloid deposition in plaques and vascular walls
e.g.- Used for dx of renal amyloidosis

124

Meningiomas & Progesterone

Some meningiomas have progesterone receptors= rapid growth in pregnancy possible

125

Tuberous Sclerosis Triad

Triad: seizures, MR, angiofibroma
leukoderma, (congenital facial white spots or macules)

126

Cowdry A Inclusions

Seen in HSV encephalitis in oligodendroglia

127

Devic's Syndrome

Neuromyelitis Optica!!
rapid demyelination of the optic nerve and spinal cord w paraplegia
-stated as "variant" of MS but really its own disease

128

c-erb B2

Breast Cancer association
-HER2

129

Foster-Kennedy Syndrome

A tumor causing blindness & anosmia w/ papilloedema

130

Hoffman's sign

Flicking of middle finger's nail -- distal sign of nerve regeneration after injury

131

Red Nucleus Destruction

Intention tremors of the arm

132

Ventral Spinocerebellar Tract

Unconcious proprioception of the lower extremities

133

Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract

Unconscious proprioception & fine motor movements

134

Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

Pain & Temp sensation

135

Ventral Spinothalamic Tract

Light touch perception

136

SVA

Taster& Smell

137

GSE

Muscles of the eye & tongue

138

SSA

Vision, Hearing & Equilibrium

139

GVA

Sensation of the tongue, soft palate. Carotid Body & Sinus innervation

140

GVE

1. Edinger Westphal nucleus = parasympathetic eye innervation
2. Gland innervation= secretion
3. Viscera

141

GSA

1. Pain & temp of face
2. Sensation of external ear

142

SVE

Innervation of muscles of mastication, facial expressions, larynx & pharynx

143

LMN Lesion

1. Werndig-Hoffman -- progressive infantile muscular atrophy
2. Poliomyelitis

144

Sensory Pathway Lesion

1. Subacute Combined Degeneration= Friedrich's Ataxia= B12 Deficiency
2. Tabes Dorsalis (neurosyphilis)

145

Both UMN & LMN

ALS

146

Both Sensory & Motor Lesion

1. Brown-Sequard -- hemicord lesion
2. Anterior spinal artery occlusion

147

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Controls circadian rhythm

148

Ventromedial Nucleus

Satiety center
"savage" behavior 7 obesity when lesioned

149

Lateral Nucleus

Induces eating
starvation when lesioned ("shrink laterally with lateral lesion")

150

Arcuate Nucleus

Releases PIf (dopaminergic neurons)

151

Mamillary Body

Hemorrhages seen in Wernicke's Encephalopathy

152

Acanthocytes

RBCs w/ spiny projections
-seen in abetalipoproteinemia, severe liver disease