Pharmacology -- Antimicrobials Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology -- Antimicrobials Deck (41):
1

Primaquine

Malaria prophylaxis
Used for extraerythrocytic forms Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale

2

Ciprofloxacin

Quinolone derivative
Both gam + and - coverage
Disrupts DNA gyrases: topo II and IV.

3

Tetracyclines, anuria and "the exception"

Tetracyclines contraindicated in anuric pt. due to production of (-)Nitrogen balance and Inc BUN levels.
Doxycycline is the exception

4

Ceftriaxone

3rd gen cephalosporin
DOC for bacterial meningitis in kids (e.g. HiB)
one dose tx for gonorrhea

5

Hepatic coma DOC

Neomycin (aminoglycoside)-- supresses normal flora= Dec NH4 prod.= Dec free nitrogen levels in blood stream

6

Clavulanic acid

Irreversible inhibitor of Beta-lactamases, but not transpeptidase
combined w beta-lac sensitive penicillins
usually amoxacillin (Augmentin) or ticercillin (Timentin)

7

Piperacillin

Tx: Pseudomonas & Klebsiella
Broad spec Abx, ureidopenicillin
usually combined w/ tazobactam

8

Streptomycin

Tx: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
-aminoglycoside -- protein synth inhib by bind to 30 s subunit

9

Isoniazid

Most commonly used drug for TB
Usually combined w Rifampin and/or Ethambutol
Pre-tx w pyridoxine (Vit B6) can prevent peripheral neuritis

10

Pyrantel Pamoate

Tx: Hookworm
Depolarizing NMJ inhibitor--causing sudden contraction, followed by paralysis, of helminths. worm to "lose its grip" on intestine

11

Buy "AT" 30, "CELL" at 50

A=aminoglycosides
T=tetracyclines
30= 30S ribosomal subunit
C=chloramphenicol
E= Erythromycin (macrolide)
L= clindamycin
L= lincomycin
50=50S subunit

12

Cefotoxin

Tx: intraabdominal infections (e.g. w Bacteroides fragilis)
Tradition tx has ben clindamycin & gentamycin

13

Chloramphenicol

Broad spec Abx
Bone marrow suppression (common)- aplastic anemia (rare)
Gray baby syndrome (choram. can't be conjugated)
DOC Typhoid fever (symptomatic salmonella infect.)
DOC HiB meningitis in kids-- esp. strain resistant to ampicillin

14

Nifurtimox

Tx: trypanosomiasis
an antiparasitic

15

Metronidazole

Tx: Leishmaniasis & Amebiasis
God for anaerobic bacteria e.g. B. fragilis, C. Diff
DOC Trichomoniasis
DOC Giardia lambia

16

Txt P. Carinii

TMP-SMX & Pentamidine

17

Tetracycline

Tx: Brucellosis & Cholera, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, spirochete infections like Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferia)
-30S protein synth inhibition

18

TMP-SMX

Anti-dyhydrofolate reductase activity
sulfonamide abx combo-- inhibit successive steps in folate synth
trade: bactrim

19

Benzathine Penicillin G

Long duration of action...given every 3-4 weeks for tx of syphilis

20

Praziquantel

Tx: schistosomiasis (flukes/trematodes)

21

Melarsoprol

Tx trypanosomiasis w/ neurological sx
i.e. when "sleeping sickness" signs have already started

22

Stibogluconate

Tx: Leishmaniasis

23

Fluconazole

Tx: fungal encephalitis
mech: inhibits fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase
block conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol

24

Amphotericin B

Ployene antifungal... binds ergosterol
"ampho-terrible" ...severe side effects

25

Ketoconazole MOA

Inhibits fungal ergosterol synth= disrupts membrane

26

Griseofulvin MOA

accumulates in keratinized layers of skin= used in dermatomycoses infections

27

Mefloquine

Anti-malarial
Tx: chloroquine resistant strains= P. falciparum

28

Chloroquine

tx: malaria when inside RBC

29

Nifurtimox

DOC Chagas disease due to T. cruzi

30

Erythromycin

Used in pt.s allergic to penicillin
Macrolide- blocks aminoacyl translocation, prevents tRNA from moving from A--P site at the A site of rRNA complex

31

Nystatin

Topical tx of superficial mycotic infection, e.g. candidiasis

32

Acyclovir

Guinine analog
Tx: Herpes infections (HSV1, 2, VZV, EBV)

33

Imipenem

Carbapenem--Broad spec beta-lactam Abx
Used w Cilastatin
Can cause seizures

34

Cefoperazone side effects

Bleeding due to vit K level alterations
contraindicated in pts w/ bleeding d/os
(third gen cephalosporin)

35

Vancomycin

Used for MRSA
"red neck" due to histamine release --> facial flushing

36

Meropenem

Use w/ cilastatins
Doesn't cause seizures (unlike Imipenem)

37

Nafcillin

Only penicillin that does not need dose adjustment in renal impairment

38

Peripheral neuropathy

Seen w use of: metronidazole, isoniazid, vincristine, ddI, AZT, allopurinol (gout tx)

39

Sulfonamides & newborns

Kernicterus can occur (neuro)

40

"O.N.E." for gonorrhea

Fluroquinolones used in a one dose deal for gonorrhea:
O= Oflaxacin
N= Norfloxacin
E= Enoxacin

41

Ribavirin

Tx RSV