Hazards, Precautions, Etc. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hazards, Precautions, Etc. Deck (61)
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1

How many hospitalized patients in the US acquire 1 or more healthcare associated infections?

5-10% or 2 million people a year

2

What does HAI stand for?

healthcare-associated infections

3

What are the 4 most prevalent infections?

Urinary tract infections (catheter associated 35%)
Surgical site infections (20%, but 1/3 of the costs)
Bloodstream infections (15%)
Pneumonia (15% and usually ventilator-associated. accounts for 25% of mortality)

4

What organization makes the rules for ensuring workers have safe working environment?

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

5

What organization enforces the rules and standards set forth?

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

6

What is methylmethacrylate?

Glue used in ortho rooms that can cause respiratory and genitourinary problems

7

What anesthetic vapor was known to cause/increase likelihood of Hepatitis and therefore is no longer used?

Halothane

8

What patient population is automatically treated as having a latex allergy?

Spina bifida (congenital birth defect)

9

What does PPE stand for?

Proper precautions equipment

10

You should stand at least _____ ft away from radiation to be safe for a 1 time zap IE. chest x-ray in PACU

6

11

Name the 4 risks associated with lasers?

Thermal burns
Eye injury
Electrical hazard
Fire/Explosions

12

What should healthcare personnel always wear in room with lasers?

Proper eye protection and high-efficiency laser mask

13

What percent of error in anesthesia management is attributed to fatigue?

64% by far the highest

14

For transmission of infection to occur, what must be present/required

Source
Stabile pathogen
Adequate numbers
Infectivity of agent
Appropriate vector
Portal of entry

15

What respiratory infections can be transmitted by aerosolization (coughing sneezing airborne)

Influenza
Measles
TB

16

What respiratory infections can be transmitted by self inoculation (direct)

Rhinovirus
Respiratory syncital virus (RSV)

17

This disease leads to 36 K deaths a year, is very easily transmitted, and pt should be isolated bc disease is shed for 5 days

INFLUENZA

18

T OR F: If a patient has measles, mumps, or rubella, they can still have surgery?

FALSE--no surgery for these patients

19

All about rubeola:

aka measles
Transmitted aerosol
Carries fever and 3 c's: cough, coryza,and conjunctivitis

20

All about rubella:

aka german measles
most adults immune
Can cause birth defects and miscarriages in 1st trimester

21

All about mumps:

transmitted by airborne droplets
swelling of salivary and parotid glands
most often seen in children 5-9 YO

22

All about respiratory syncytial virus (RSV):

most severe cause of lower respiratory disease in children
transmitted by self-inoculation--Infected children can shed virus for 7 days
viable on skin for 6 hours
can have recurrent asthma for 6 months

23

What is the common cold called?

Rhinovirus

24

What are the 3 types of Herpes virus?

Varicella-zoster (VZV)
HSV 1 & 2
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

25

All about VZV:

aka chicken pox and shingles
transmitted to immuno-compromised patients
communicability 1-2 days before pt will show symptoms and lasts 5-6 days

26

All about herpes simplex type 1:

severe oral lesions and pt has fever
transmitted by self-inoculation
can lead to encephalitis

27

All about cytomegalovirus (CMV):

usually in childhood
transmitted by direct contact
can spread to fetus during pregnancy

28

Which is the "bad guy" of hepatitis?

Hep C
transmitted by blood/body fluids

29

All about Hepatitis B:

seroconversion up to 30%
can develop cirrhosis and ESLD
HBV primary prevention strategy

30

All about hep C:

leading cause of chronic liver disease
seroconversion 1.8%