Hazards, Precautions, Etc. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hazards, Precautions, Etc. Deck (61):
1

How many hospitalized patients in the US acquire 1 or more healthcare associated infections?

5-10% or 2 million people a year

2

What does HAI stand for?

healthcare-associated infections

3

What are the 4 most prevalent infections?

Urinary tract infections (catheter associated 35%)
Surgical site infections (20%, but 1/3 of the costs)
Bloodstream infections (15%)
Pneumonia (15% and usually ventilator-associated. accounts for 25% of mortality)

4

What organization makes the rules for ensuring workers have safe working environment?

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

5

What organization enforces the rules and standards set forth?

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

6

What is methylmethacrylate?

Glue used in ortho rooms that can cause respiratory and genitourinary problems

7

What anesthetic vapor was known to cause/increase likelihood of Hepatitis and therefore is no longer used?

Halothane

8

What patient population is automatically treated as having a latex allergy?

Spina bifida (congenital birth defect)

9

What does PPE stand for?

Proper precautions equipment

10

You should stand at least _____ ft away from radiation to be safe for a 1 time zap IE. chest x-ray in PACU

6

11

Name the 4 risks associated with lasers?

Thermal burns
Eye injury
Electrical hazard
Fire/Explosions

12

What should healthcare personnel always wear in room with lasers?

Proper eye protection and high-efficiency laser mask

13

What percent of error in anesthesia management is attributed to fatigue?

64% by far the highest

14

For transmission of infection to occur, what must be present/required

Source
Stabile pathogen
Adequate numbers
Infectivity of agent
Appropriate vector
Portal of entry

15

What respiratory infections can be transmitted by aerosolization (coughing sneezing airborne)

Influenza
Measles
TB

16

What respiratory infections can be transmitted by self inoculation (direct)

Rhinovirus
Respiratory syncital virus (RSV)

17

This disease leads to 36 K deaths a year, is very easily transmitted, and pt should be isolated bc disease is shed for 5 days

INFLUENZA

18

T OR F: If a patient has measles, mumps, or rubella, they can still have surgery?

FALSE--no surgery for these patients

19

All about rubeola:

aka measles
Transmitted aerosol
Carries fever and 3 c's: cough, coryza,and conjunctivitis

20

All about rubella:

aka german measles
most adults immune
Can cause birth defects and miscarriages in 1st trimester

21

All about mumps:

transmitted by airborne droplets
swelling of salivary and parotid glands
most often seen in children 5-9 YO

22

All about respiratory syncytial virus (RSV):

most severe cause of lower respiratory disease in children
transmitted by self-inoculation--Infected children can shed virus for 7 days
viable on skin for 6 hours
can have recurrent asthma for 6 months

23

What is the common cold called?

Rhinovirus

24

What are the 3 types of Herpes virus?

Varicella-zoster (VZV)
HSV 1 & 2
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

25

All about VZV:

aka chicken pox and shingles
transmitted to immuno-compromised patients
communicability 1-2 days before pt will show symptoms and lasts 5-6 days

26

All about herpes simplex type 1:

severe oral lesions and pt has fever
transmitted by self-inoculation
can lead to encephalitis

27

All about cytomegalovirus (CMV):

usually in childhood
transmitted by direct contact
can spread to fetus during pregnancy

28

Which is the "bad guy" of hepatitis?

Hep C
transmitted by blood/body fluids

29

All about Hepatitis B:

seroconversion up to 30%
can develop cirrhosis and ESLD
HBV primary prevention strategy

30

All about hep C:

leading cause of chronic liver disease
seroconversion 1.8%

31

What is seroconversion?

Exposure to a disease that will turn into an active disease in the exposed

32

All about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV):

seroconversion 0.3%
increased risk with blood, deep injury, needle sticks
is terminal illness, death within 2 months

33

All about Tuberculosis (TB)

transmitted through airborne particles
Protection: N95 mask
detected with skin PPD test
Elective surgeries should be postponed until pt no longer infectious
non-elective performed at end of day

34

Is urine considered to be sterile?

YES

35

Fluids that can be considered infectious?

Blood, bloody fluids
CSF fluid
Amniotic/pleural/pericardial fluids
Peritoneal/ synovial fluids

36

What is the single most important action in prevention of the spread of infection?

Hand washing

37

What is the recommended minimal amount of time to scrub hands?

15 seconds

38

If spraying or splashing of fluids is anticipated during surgery, what should be worn?

Mask, eye protection, gowns

39

What goes in the blue contamination bags?

soiled linens

40

Needles or other sharps go in what bin?

RED

41

The reusable gowns go in which container?

green

42

For all airborne precautions, you should wear what PPD(device)/PPE(equipment)?

N-95 mask
Do not have contact with mumps,measles, or rubella unless immune

43

What procedure is done to a person who tested positive on a PPD?

Chest x-ray (CXR)

44

T OR F: All patients are treated as if they have a communicable blood and/or body fluid infection?

TRUE

45

Define cleaning

removal of foreign material

46

Define antiseptic

chemical germicide for use on living tissue
(iodine, chlorohexadine)

47

Define disinfectant

chemical germicide for use on non-living items
(bleach)

48

Define sterile:

completely free of all microorganisms

49

Define sterilization

process that results in probability of microorganism survival on an item is <1:1000000

50

What are the disinfection levels?

High level- kills fungi, viruses, and vegetative bacteria (no endospores)
Intermediate-level: kills fungi, large viruses, and bacteria (no endospores)
low-level : kills fungi, some viruses and bacteria (exception TB endospores)

51

T or F: Any item which comes in contact with mucous membranes but does not penetrate body surface must be washed and cleaned with high-level disinfectant

TRUE
laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes

52

Define simple cleaning:

soap and water

53

Define antiseptic cleaning:

substance that has antimicrobial activity and that can be applied to living tissue

54

Define steam sterilization:

autoclaving: kills everything b/c of pressure and temperature
15 min @ 121*C
10 min @ 126*C
3.5 min @ 134*C
confirmed by indicator strip on inside of tray

55

What is the most widely used of the chlorine disinfectants and used on tables, floors, and equipment?

Chlorine (hypochlorite)

56

What food allergies are also associated with latex allergy?

avocado, kiwi, banana, chestnuts, stone fruit

57

What past medical history can be associated with latex allergy?

hay fever
rhinitis
asthma
eczema

58

When do you want to schedule surgeries for patients who have latex allergy?

First cases of the day

59

Betadine allergy patients can also be allergic to?

Shellfish

60

Which vein carries the lowest risk of catheter related infections?

subclavian

61

Describe the best prevention for IV catheter related infections:

Single lumen
full body wraps when placing catheter
transparent, semi-permeable dressings