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Flashcards in Acid-Base Interpretation Deck (36):
1

Nearly all biochemical reactions in the body require a balanced _________ status to maintain protein conformation

acid-base

2

acids produce ___ ions in water and bases produce ___

H+
OH-

3

what is the normal pH range for blood?

7.35-7.45

4

do strong acids or bases always dissociate in water?

yes

5

what is the biggest buffer source in the body?

bone

6

what are the two major organ systems that effect pH?

lungs and kidneys

7

which organ system is responsible for quick changes and volatile acids?

lungs

8

which organ system is responsible for slow changes and non-volatile acids

kidneys

9

what are the normal levels for PCO2 in arterial and venous blood?

Arterial: 40 mmHg
Venous: 45 mmHg

10

why is PCO2 higher in venous blood?

because your body produces some

11

changes in PaCO2 result in ______ acid-base disturbances

respiratory

12

changes in HCO3- result in a ______ acid-base disturbance

metabolic

13

describe LeChatlier's principle

when stress is applied to a system in equilibrium, then the balance is shifted in the direction to relieve that stress

14

which buffering system is the most important due to its variation in a regulated manner?

HCO3- CO2 buffering system

15

what is the first step in ABG analysis?

is it acidemia or alkalemia

16

if the PaCO2 and the pH values change in the same direction, the disturbance is _______

metabolic

17

if the PACO2 and pH change in different directions, the disturbance is _______

respiratory

18

how do you calculate an acute respiratory change in pH?

change in pH = change in PaCO2 x 0.008

19

anion gap is associated with metabolic or respiratory or metabolic disturbances?

metabolic

20

what is the formula for determining anion gap and what are the normal values?

AG = Na - (Cl + HCO3)

12 +/- 4 = normal non-gap acidosis

21

what is anion gap used for?

to determine if a metabolic acidosis is due to an accumulation of non-volatile acids or a net loss of bicarbonate

22

when calculating the expected pH, if it is different than the measured pH, what is true?

there is a secondary disorder and it is metabolic

23

if the expected PaCO2 is different that the measured PaCO2, what is true?

there is a secondary disorder and it is metabolic

24

inadequate or excessive compensation suggests what?

an additional disturbance

25

non-gap acidosis is generally associated with what to causes?

GI Losses and Renal Tubular Acidosis

26

anion gap is usually caused by what?

MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
DKA
Paraldehyde
Isoniazide
Lactic Acidosis
Ethanol
Salicylates

27

which fluid has the "perfect" pH?

Plasmalyte

28

what is the first step in treating non-gap acidosis?

give fluids

29

what are two common causes for respiratory alkalosis?

pain and anxiety
--> increase MV --> decrease EtCO2 --> increase pH

30

what is the normal range for HCO3 in the blood?

22-26

31

name 3 chemical buffers in body fluids and where they work.

Bicarbonate (extracellular buffer)
phosphate ( renal tubule fluid and extracellular buffer)
proteins (intracellular buffer)

32

what are the 4 primary acid-base disorders?

respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
metabolic alkalosis

33

what is DKA?

DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies that cause most of the symptoms and complications

34

what is Lactic acidosis?

physiological condition characterized by low
pH in body tissues and blood (acidosis) accompanied by the buildup of lactate, and is considered a distinct form of metabolic acidosis.
-typically occurs when cells receive too little oxygen (hypoxia). --> impaired cellular respiration leads to lower pH levels.
-cells are forced to metabolize glucose anaerobically, which leads to lactate formation. Therefore, elevated lactate is indicative of tissue hypoxia, hypoperfusion, and possible damage

35

What is Alcoholic ketoacidosis?

the buildup of ketones in the blood. Ketones are a type of acid that form when the body breaks down fat for energy

36

Renal tubular acidosis?

RTA is an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine