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Flashcards in Vascular Access* Deck (58)
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1

what is the purpose of IV placement?

NPO “non per os”
Fluid Loss
Blood Loss
Drug Administration

2

plasma volume is approx. what?

~2 L

3

what percentage of water is intracellular vs. extracellular?

intracellular = 65%
extracellular = 35%

4

osmolality

the concentration of an osmotic solution per 1000 grams of solvent

5

osmolarity

the concentration of osmotic solution per liter of fluid

6

normal OSMotic pressure

Normal = 285 mOsm/L

7

normal ONCotic pressure

Oncotic pressure (mmHg)
Normal = 28 mmHg

8

Frequently used in place of osmotic pressure or tension, is related to the number of non-penetrating particles found in solution

tonicity

9

Of equal tension. Denoting a solution having the same tonicity as another solution with which it is compared

isotonic

10

Having a higher concentration of solute particles per unit volume than a comparison solution, regardless of kinds of particles. A solution in which cells shrink due to efflux of water.

hypertonic

11

Having a lower concentration of solute particles per unit volume than a comparison solution, regardless of kinds of particles. A solution in which cells expand due to influx of water.

hypotonic

12

what happens to a RC in a hyper-, hypo-, and isotonic solution?

hypertonic = shrinks
hypotonic = swells
isotonic = nothing

13

what are the normal plasma values for Na+ and K+?

135-145
3.5-5.0

14

which commonly given fluid contains Ca2+ and why does that matter?

LR
Ca2+ can start the coagulation cascade

15

what dictates whether the solution should be delivered via the peripheral or central venous route?

The tonicity of an IV fluid
Extremely hypotonic and hypertonic solutions may be infused in small volumes and into large vessels, where dilution and distribution are rapid.

16

The generally accepted upper limit for a peripheral IV is ______ mOsm/L

900

17

T or F: K+ can be given peripherally

FALSE

18

in normal adults, what is the average daily fluid loss?

Total ~2500 ml/day

19

4-2-1 Rule

Example: 70kg pt
4ml/kg/hr*10kg = 40 ml/hr
2ml/kg/hr*10kg = 20 ml/hr
1ml/kg/hr*50kg = 50 ml/hr
70kg = 110 ml/hr

20

what is the Sensible Fluid Loss Perioperative for minor, moderate and major surgery?

2-4 ml/kg/hr minor surgery (hernia)
4-6 ml/kg/hr moderate surgery (chole)
6-10 ml/kg/hr major surgery (bowel resection)

21

Replace 1mL blood loss with ___mL crystalloid or ___mL colloid

3
1

22

Monitor vitals and maintain urine output at a MINIMUM _____ml/kg/hr

0.5

23

fluid calculation

Hysterectomy 70 kg Female
NPO Deficit 10 hrs = 1100 ml NS
Maintenance 110 ml/hr
Blood loss = 300 = 900 ml NS
Sensible loss 4 ml/kg/hr = 280 ml/hr
Total case 3 hours = 1100+330+900+840 = 3170 ml

24

how much blood can a 4x4 and lap pad hold?

Surgical sponge (4x4)
10mL blood
“Lap pads”
100-150mL blood

25

Aqueous solution of low MW ions with or without glucose
Examples: NS, Lactated Ringers, Plasma-Lyte

crystalloid

26

Aqueous solution of high MW substances
Maintain plasma colloid oncotic pressure
Albumin, Hetastarch, etc.

colloid

27

Intravascular halflife of crystalloids is

20-30min

28

advantages/disadvantages of crystalloids and colloids

CHART

29

A potential complication of giving too much Normal saline is what?

Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis

30

which fluid can lower Na levels?

LR