Flashcards in Vascular Access* Deck (58)
what is the purpose of IV placement?
NPO “non per os”
plasma volume is approx. what?
what percentage of water is intracellular vs. extracellular?
intracellular = 65%
extracellular = 35%
the concentration of an osmotic solution per 1000 grams of solvent
the concentration of osmotic solution per liter of fluid
normal OSMotic pressure
Normal = 285 mOsm/L
normal ONCotic pressure
Oncotic pressure (mmHg)
Normal = 28 mmHg
Frequently used in place of osmotic pressure or tension, is related to the number of non-penetrating particles found in solution
Of equal tension. Denoting a solution having the same tonicity as another solution with which it is compared
Having a higher concentration of solute particles per unit volume than a comparison solution, regardless of kinds of particles. A solution in which cells shrink due to efflux of water.
Having a lower concentration of solute particles per unit volume than a comparison solution, regardless of kinds of particles. A solution in which cells expand due to influx of water.
what happens to a RC in a hyper-, hypo-, and isotonic solution?
hypertonic = shrinks
hypotonic = swells
isotonic = nothing
what are the normal plasma values for Na+ and K+?
which commonly given fluid contains Ca2+ and why does that matter?
Ca2+ can start the coagulation cascade
what dictates whether the solution should be delivered via the peripheral or central venous route?
The tonicity of an IV fluid
Extremely hypotonic and hypertonic solutions may be infused in small volumes and into large vessels, where dilution and distribution are rapid.
The generally accepted upper limit for a peripheral IV is ______ mOsm/L
T or F: K+ can be given peripherally
in normal adults, what is the average daily fluid loss?
Total ~2500 ml/day
Example: 70kg pt
4ml/kg/hr*10kg = 40 ml/hr
2ml/kg/hr*10kg = 20 ml/hr
1ml/kg/hr*50kg = 50 ml/hr
70kg = 110 ml/hr
what is the Sensible Fluid Loss Perioperative for minor, moderate and major surgery?
2-4 ml/kg/hr minor surgery (hernia)
4-6 ml/kg/hr moderate surgery (chole)
6-10 ml/kg/hr major surgery (bowel resection)
Replace 1mL blood loss with ___mL crystalloid or ___mL colloid
Monitor vitals and maintain urine output at a MINIMUM _____ml/kg/hr
Hysterectomy 70 kg Female
NPO Deficit 10 hrs = 1100 ml NS
Maintenance 110 ml/hr
Blood loss = 300 = 900 ml NS
Sensible loss 4 ml/kg/hr = 280 ml/hr
Total case 3 hours = 1100+330+900+840 = 3170 ml
how much blood can a 4x4 and lap pad hold?
Surgical sponge (4x4)
Aqueous solution of low MW ions with or without glucose
Examples: NS, Lactated Ringers, Plasma-Lyte
Aqueous solution of high MW substances
Maintain plasma colloid oncotic pressure
Albumin, Hetastarch, etc.
Intravascular halflife of crystalloids is
advantages/disadvantages of crystalloids and colloids
A potential complication of giving too much Normal saline is what?
Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis