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Flashcards in Head and Neck II Deck (248)
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What are the prevertebral muscles? (X4)

Rectus capitis lateralis,
Rectus capitis anterior,
Longus colli,
Longus capitis,
Anterior, middle, and posterior scalenes


Why are the rectus capitis anterior and longus capitis clinically relevant?

They are often weak and found in patients suffering from lots of headaches. This is because the suboccipital muscles are often too tight.


What prevertebral muscle runs from vertebral body to vertebral body?

Longus colli


What is a large, general function of the scalene muscles?

Give stability to the neck.


What emerge through the scalene muscles? Specifically which of the two?

The roots of the brachial plexus (specifically through the anterior and middle scalenes.


What are the three ganglion of the sympathetic trunk?

Superior cervical ganglion, middle cervical ganglion, and the stellate ganglion.


What makes up the stellate ganglion?

A combination of the inferior cervical and superior thoracic ganglion.


True or false:
The inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion is bound up within a membrane with the superior thoracic sympathetic ganglion.

True. This is what makes up the stellate ganglion.


What is the function of the sympathetic (peri-arterial) plexus?

It is what gets sympathetic fibers to the head.


Where do the fibers to the peri-arterial plexus arise from?

The T1 to T3/4 cord levels.


True or false:
The fibers from the peri-arterial plexus synapse with the cervical sympathetic ganglia as they ascend to the head.

False. They do not synapse with the cervical sympathetic ganglion.


How do the fibers from the peri-arterial plexus ascend to the destinations in the head?

They hitchhike on the carotid vasculature and their branches.


What type of outflow does the sympathetic nervous system have?

A thoracolumbar outflow.


True or false:
The sympathetic nervous system distribution is more widespread in distribution and function as compared to the parasympathetic nervous system.



In terms of sympathetic innervation, what is the thorax innervated by?

Pulmonary and cardiac nerves and plexuses.


In terms of sympathetic innervation, what is the foregut innervated by?

Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve (T5-T9)


In terms of sympathetic innervation, what is the midgut innervated by?

Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve (T10-T11)


In terms of sympathetic innervation, what is the hindgut innervated by?

Least thoracic splanchnic nere (T12) and the lumbar splanchnic nerves.


In terms of sympathetic innervation, what is the pelvis and pernineum innervated by?

Pelvic splanchnic nerves


Which of the communicans is located more laterally? More medially?

Lateral= white rami communicans
Medial=grey rami communicans


Describe the pathway for sympathetic fibers to their effector organs.

Exit the IML grey cell column (lateral horn) at C8-L2/3 levels, out the ventral root, through the spinal nerve, through the white rami communicans (pre-ganglionic fibers), into the sympathetic trunk to their 3 options.


What are the 3 options for sympathetic fibers to choose after exiting the sympathetic trunk?

1) Synapsing at the same level & joining the spinal nerve
2) Ascending/descending and then synapsing and joing the vessels or spinal nerves at that level
3) Pass through without synapsing as thoracic splanchinc nerves(pre-ganglionic) and then synapse in the ganglia to innervate the


What do the sympathetic fibers of the peri-arterial plexus hitch-hike on?

Internal and external carotid arteries.


What is innervated by the peri-articular plexus?

Mucousal lining of the mouth
Salivary glands


What is the isthmus of the thyroid gland?

The connection between the two lobes


What is the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland?

The finger-like superior projection extending off the gland


What two types of cells make up the thryoid gland tissue? What does each of these cells secrete?

Follicular cells (iodine containg hormones--throxine (T3) and triiodothronine (T4))
Parafollicular cells (calcitonin)


What thryoid hormones are important in metabolism? Blood calcium levels?

T3 and T4; calcitonin


What other hormone does calcitonin work with to help regulate blood calcium levels?

PTH (parathryoid hormone)


Where are the parathryoid glands located? How many are there usually?

Embedded in the thyroid gland. Typically 4 but can have 2-6.