Flashcards in Back Slide Questions (Test I) Deck (84):
What motion takes place at the anterior-posterior axis?
Adduction & Abduction
What motion takes place at the vertical axis?
What motion takes place at the transverse axis?
Internal & External Rotation
Supination & Pronation
(Subcutaneous Fascia) the superficial fat and connective tissue
Thoracorodorsal (Lumbodorsal) Fascia
Fascia that envelops the erector spinae muscles
Superficial Fascia is what and contains what?
Loose, irregulary arranged connective tissue containing fat, sweat glands, superficial blood & lymph vessels, and cutaneous nerves
Deep Fascia (Investing Fascia)
Dense, regularly arranged connective tissue; it surrounds muscles and neurovascular bundles and intramuscular and fascial compartments
3 other types of specialized dense, regularly arranged fascia
Skin ligaments (fiberous septa), aponeurotic bands, and palmar/plantar fascia
What is a dermatome?
A region of the skin innervated by one spinal nerve segment
How many spinal cord segments need to be injured in order to lose sensation in the trunk? Why is this?
Two because the nerve segments overlap each other in the trunk region.
A bundle that includes two veins and one artery because of the lower pressure found in the veins.
What are the cervical cutaneous nerves? (x5)
Greater occipital nerve
Occitipal teritary nerve
Lesser occipital nerve
Greater auricular nerve
Posterior cutantous branches of C4-C6
1st Layer- trapezius & latissimus dorsi
2nd Layer- rhomboid major, rhomboid minor & levator scapulae
Serrattus poster superior
Serratus poster inferior
Erector spinae, transversospinalis, splenius capitis, splenius cervicis, interspinales, intertransversari, and levatores costarum
The dorsal layer of the thorcodorsal fascia attaches to what?
Spinous processes (posterior to erector spinae muscles)
The middle layer of the thorcodorsal fascia attaches to what?
Transverse processes (anterior to erector spinae muscles)
The ventral layer of the thorcodorsal fascia the fasica of what muscle?
The thoracodorsal is located lateral to the erector spinae muscles and combine to give rise to what?
The common aponeurosueses of the transverse abdominal and internal oblique abdominal muscles
The lumbar triangle is bounded by what?
Illiac crest, latissimus dorsi, and external oblique muscle
The triangle of auscultation is bounded by what?
The bounded by the latissiums dorsi, trapezius, andmedial boder of scapula
What is the clinical significance of the triangle of auscultation?
The physician will listen to this triangle to hear the lung sounds.
What is the clinical significance of the lumbar triangle?
The developing human at the beginning of development in which all the beginnings of the major structures are present.
The cell formed by the fertilization of the oocyte by a sperm.
The series of miotic divisions of the zygote that results in the formation of blastomeres.
The cells that form as a result of the zygote dividing. They continue to divide and their number increases changing the cleavage to a morula.
When 12 or more blastomeres cells are formed and make the sphere-shaped group of cells. They tightly align to make a tight ball of cells.
The fluid-filled cavity that forms inside the morula as it enters the uterus.
Embryoblast (inner cell mass)
The centrally located cells of the blastocyte that eventually form the embryo.
Bilaminar embroynic disc
After the blastocyte attaches to the uterine wall and the inner cell masses begin to divide and differentiate into two layers.
What are the primary curves of the vertebral column?
Thoracic and sacral
What are the secondary curves of the vertebral column?
Cervical and lumbar
What is a lateral curvature abnormality of the vertebral column?
How many vertebrae are in the vertebral column? How many are at each level?
What are the three special features of a cervical vertebrae?
Transverse foramen, bifid spinous processes, and uniciniate processes.
What are the three special features of the atlas?
No spinous process, anterior/posterior tubercles, and the odontoid (dental) facet.
What is the special feature of the axis?
What are the two special features of thoracic vertebrae?
Transverse costal facets and superior/inferior demi costal facets.
At what cervical vertebrae does the vertebral artery enter the cervical transverse foramen?
What are the two special features of lumbar vertebrae?
Mammillary processes and accessory processes.
Anterior and posterior foramen, ala (lateral mass), articulating surface for L5, neural hiatus, lateral/intermediate/medial crests, and an articular surface for the ilium are all found on what bone?
What types of joint is considered a nonmoveable joint?
What type of joint is considered a synovial joint?
What are the two types of synovial joints that are based upon the material that is used to connect the bony components of the joint?
Fibrous and cartilagenous
Example of a fibrous syndesmosis joint:
Mid radioulnar joint
Example of a fibrous suture joint:
Sutures in the skull (i.e. lambdoidal, coronal, sagittal, etc
Example of a fibrous gomphosis joint:
Alveolar (teeth in their sockets)
Example of a cartilagenous synchrondrosis joint:
Growth plates or the articulation between the first rib and the sternum
Example of a symphysis joint:
The five features of a synovial joint:
1) Joint capsule
2) Joint cavity
3) Articular (hyaline) cartilage
4) Synovial membrane
5) Synovial fluid
What two types of joints have a uniaxial axis of motion?
Hinge and pivot
What two types of joints have a biaxial axis of motion?
Saddle and condyloid
What type of joint has a multiaxial axis of motion?
Ball and socket
What type of joint has a non-axial axis of motion?
What is a spondyloisthesis?
An anterior movement of a vertebrae relative to the vertebrae below that can result in an impingement of the spinal cord.
What is a retrolistesis?
A posterior movement of a vertebrae relative to the vertebrae above that can result in an impingement of the spinal cord.
What is the MOI of a retrolistesis?
What is considered the floor of the suboccipital triangle?
The posterior altantooccipital membrane
What structures will the prochordial plate eventually become?
The mouth and head
What are the two layers of the bilaminar disc?
Epiblastic and hypoblastic
What does the epiblastic layer give rise to during pregnancy? The hypoblastic layer?
Yolk sac (placenta); amniotic sac
What occurs in gastrulation?
The epiblastic cells begin to migrate inward and down towards the center, forming the mesenchymal layer (making a trilaminar layer).
What first begins to differentite between cranial & caudal, dorsal & ventral, and left & right?
The primitive streak during gastrulation
What are the three layers of the trilaminar disc formed during gastrulation? What do they become embroynically?
Embryonic epiblastic cells => embryonic ectoderm
Embryonic mesenchymal cells => embryonic mesoderm
Embryonic hypoblastic cells => embryonic endoderm
What does the embryonic ectoderm give rise to?
The neuroectoderm (nervous system) and surface ectoderm (epidermis, skin, & nails)
What does the embryonic mesoderm give rise to?
Blood vessels, skeleton, striated muscle, reproductive & excretory organs.
What does the embryonic endoderm give rise to?
The epithelial linings of the respiratory and digestive systems.
What is the notocord?
The structure around which the vertebral column forms (that eventually degenerates and only becomes the nucleus pulposus of the IVD). It is formed when mesenchymal cells migrate to the primitive node.
What is neurlation?
The period in which the nervous system develops
What is the process of neurlation?
It begins with the NEURAL GROOVE developing in the ectoderm. This groove then deepens and the walls (NEURAL FOLDS) fold over and fuse together to form the NEURAL TUBE.
The neural tube essentially becomes what during neurlation?
The ventricular system of the brain.
The walls (neural plate cells) of the neural tube become what following neurlation?
The brain and spinal cord.
What five things do the neural crest cells give rise to following neurlation?
Sensory ganglia of spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia of cranial nerves, meningeal coverings of brain and spinal cord, schwann cells, and brachial arch cartilages of the head.
What three layers do the mesodermal cells differentiate into during neurlation?
Paraxial (somatic) mesoderm
Intermediate (splanchic) mesoderm
Lateral (somatic & splanchic) mesoderm
What are the segments called that the paraxial mesoderm begin to divide into during formation of the neural tube?
What does the paraxial (somatic) mesoderm give rise to?
Axial skeleton (vertebrae and ribs)
Paraxial or intrinsic back muscles
What does the intermediate (splanchic) mesoderm give rise to?
Accessory glands (kidney, adrenal medulla)
What does the lateral (somatic & splanchic) mesoderm give rise to?
Limb musculature & connective tissue (somatic)
Serous membranes (pleura, pericardium, &peritoneum)
Blood and lymph cells
Cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
Spleen and adrenal cortex
What does failure of the rostral (cranial) neural tube to close result in?
Anecephaly (always fatal)
What does failure of the caudal neural tube to close result in?
What is spina bifida occulta?
Failure of the vertebral arch (lamina) to fuse that typically occurs at the level of L5-S1. There's typically a dimple with a tuft of hair over the area.
What is spina bifida cystica megingocele?
A protrusion of the of the meningeal sac forming a meningeal cyst on the outside of the body.