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Flashcards in Heart Failure Deck (35)
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1

is heart failure a disease

no, it is a syndrome like gastroenteritis or syncope but you need to know what is actually causing it

2

what is the most common cause

left heart failure

3

systolic heart failure is also called

reduced ejection fraction

4

preserved ejection fraction is also called

diastolic heart failure

5

how is ejection fraction measured

with echo or ultra sound it is measuring how much blood in the LV actually enters the aorta

6

what is borderline ejection fraction

41-49%

7

what is a normal ejection fraction

50-70

8

what is a reduced ejection fraction

less than 40

9

what is the primary complain of hf pts

exertional dyspnea and paraoxsymal nocturnal dyspnea. - wake up and must stand up to breath

10

what are parts of pts hx indicating HF

fatigue
peripheal edema
rapid weight gain
increased abdominal girth
orthopnea
PND
Exertional dyspnea

11

How does increaesed respiratory drive occur

increased LVEDP leads to pulmonary venus congestion leads to stimulation of pulmonary j receptors

12

how do we measure the severity of HF

Symptoms

13

physical examination

s3 on cardiac ausciltation
muffled or soft heart sounds
displaced cardiac apex
rales
pitting edema
JVD
Hepatojugular reflex
ascites

14

where do you listen to s3

bell at apex , kentucky

15

what does s4 sound like

tennesee

16

+ hepatojugular reflex means what kind of heart failure

right sided heart failures

17

biggest cause of r sided heart failure

L sided heart failure

18

how to evaluate CHF

1. BNP- looks to see if myocytes are stretched
2. Chest x ray
3. echo- most helpful

19

should you check troponin

yes

20

how to treat HF

diuresis
-loop diuretics
-monitor intake and output
-monitor K

oxygen
treat underlying disease

21

All pts require

beta blocker
ace/ arb
diuresis
treat underlying disease

22

what are some risk factors

HTN
Smokng
discouraging HF

23

what is cardiomyopathy

left ventricle thins due to alcohol and viral infections

24

a direct viral infection causing dialated cardiomyopathy is

infectous myocarditis

25

non infectous myocarditis is often caused by

meds , inflammatory conditions

26

what is stress cardiomyopathy

dialated ventricle tako tsubo. caused by a high catecholamine surge during a stressful event

27

a person just had a huge stressor what could they get

stress cardiomyopathy aka tako tsubo

28

what happens in restrictive cardiomyopathy

impaired diastolic filling

29

does acute pericarditis respond to treatment what is the most common cause

yes . viral

30

what is the cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopthay and what are some symptoms

LV septal hypertrophy caused by autosoma dominant genetic syndrome . dyspnea, chest pain, loud s4