Flashcards in Heat / Ice Deck (19)
What are the Indications for Hot Packs?
increase collagen extensibility
Decrease Joint Stiffness
Relieve muscle spasm
increased blood flow
as a warm-up to assist exs
possible assist in resolving inflammation
What are the contraindications of heat?
severe cardiac disease
What are the precautions of heat?
with insensitive patients (could burn and not feel)
with spinal cord inuries
What should the hydroculator temperature be?
How many layers should be applied to a HP?
6-8 Layers of towel
4-6 if using foam covers
How long does it take to re-heat a HP?
What are the therapeutic effects of a heat?
increase the extensibility of collagen tissues (heat tissue, bonds weaken)
Decrease joint stiffness (increase joint temp, viscosity of fluids decrease, allowing for joints to move easier)
Relieves muscle spasms (increased blood flow / nutrition to spasm)
Increased blood flow (after acute phase. increases healing time via bringing nutrients)
Possibly assist in resolution of inflammation
What are the therapeutic effects of cold?
Decreased muscle spasm (shuts down & numbs the area)
Decreased pain and spasticity (takes away perception of pain)
Decreased in Nerve Conduction Velocity (nerves don't travel as fast)
Relieve swelling and edema (primarily through vasoconstriction)
Prevents excessive tissue damage (cells that lost blood supply have a decreased need for nutrients, therefore, causes less damage with immediate icing.)
What are the deep heating agents discussed in class?
Ultrasound, shortwave diathermy, and Microwave diathermy.
What do superficial heating and cooling agents do?
produce temperature changes in skin and underlying tissues to a depth of approximately 1cm.
What do deep heating agents do?
Capable of delivering the necessary energy to the deep structures without causing excessive heating of the overlying superficial tissues (can heat tissues deep without burning the skin/superficial layers)
What is a Diathermy?
A magnetic field that is switched back and forth, causing molecules to move. This creates heat. Diathermy allows you to treat as deep as you want. "went out of style 20+ years ago."
When should you use cold?
in the ACUTE INFLAMMATION phase of healing, cold is better than heat b/c it decreased the metabolic needs of that tissue & decreases swelling.
When should you use heat?
in the MATURATION phase of healing, heat can speed the rate of chemical reactions and accelerate the return of normalization of tissue.
Should heat, or col be used in the proliferation phase of healing?
Less certainty as to which modality is best. Cold has the least chance of aggravating the injury but may slow healing. Clinical judgment is most needed in this phase to determine which modality to use.
What happens when cold is applied to the body?
Immediate vasodilation, followed by:
Circulation (vasoconstriction, decreased capillary permeability, consensual response)
Respiratory - minimal effect
Shivering - bodies attempt to increase temp.
Decreased local metabolism - due to decrease in chemical reactions
What happens when heat is applied to the body?
Hyperemia - turns red - heat from core is dumped to skin
increased pulse (due to increase blood flow)
respiratory - minimal changes
increased sweating (trying to cool/regulate body temp)
increased local metabolism (due to increase in chemical reactions)
What area of the body controls temperature?