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Flashcards in Massage Deck (50)
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1

Massage Precautions

Hematomas
non-union fractures
herniated discs
debilitated patients
malignancies
conditions with collagen weakening

2

Massage Contraindications

When increased circulation is not desired
severe disease / distress
contagious skin disease
over foreign bodies or sharp bony prominences
Acute Conditions
Areas of decreased sensation
over recent surgery
systemic edema
areas of active bone growth
tuberculosis
pregnancy

3

Massage Indications

Pain
Edema
Trigger Point
Spasm
Contracted Tissue
inefficiencies of circulation
Specific, or general relaxation

4

What are the general principles regarding strokes?

work broad & light to specific & deep.
mold hands to pt body
deep pressure: distal to proximal
address entire length of muscle
minimize interruptions

5

What are the Principles regarding massage?

Direction (linear, cross-fiber, distal, proximal)
Duration (take adequate time time to achieve goal)
Pressure (varies based on intent, body region, pathology, and patient tolerance)
Rate & Rhythm (should be purposeful and consistent)

6

Basic Massage Strokes
(learned in class)

Effleurage, petrissage & compression, friction, jostling, tapotement, trigger point technique, myofascial release

7

Effleurage

superficial - relaxing, calming effect
deep - reflex and mechanical effects

Used for information gathering. calming / focusing. warming of superficial tissues.

8

Petrissage

Intermittent kneading (may be unilateral, bilateral, or digital)

Increases circulation
softens and lengthens tissue

9

Friction

sustained pressure with movement

10

Jostling

rhythmic shaking of tissue or limb
decreases muscle guarding
relaxing

11

Tapotement

hacking, beating, gorilla punching, chopping, slapping
excitatory

12

What are the considerations for draping?

only expose area that you will be treating. parts not treated should be covered by a towel or a sheet

13

What is a trigger point?

focus of hypersensistivity in a tissue, that, when compressed, is locally tender and, if sufficiently hypersensitive, give rise to referred pain and tenderness, and sometimes to referred autonomic phenomena and distortion of proprioception

14

What are the characteristics of triggerpoints?

consistent referred pain patter upon compression.
Local twitch response elicited by palpation
possible restriction in ROM
muscle weakness with no appreciable atrophy possible autonomic phenomena including vasomotor and pliomotor responses

15

Active Trigger Points

always tender, produce referred pain
associated muscle may be weak and present with decreased motion/flexibility
when palpated, present with localized twitch response

16

Latent Trigger Points

painful only when palpated,

17

TrP Causes

fractures, sprains, dislocations, muscle impact injuries, stress from excessive, or unusual exercise, articular dysfunction, overload on the muscle from prolonged stationary posture or prolonged immobilization in a shortened position
nerve compression

18

What are the indications of a JOBST Pump?

Edema

19

What are the contraindications of a JOBST pump?

Thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, severe congestive heart failure

20

What is the treatment time of a JOBST pump?

10min-4 hours 1-2 times per day

21

What is the Duty Booty of the JOBST pump?

45 Sec on / 15 sec off to 3min on / 1 min off

22

What should the pressures never exceed (in arm, leg, and overall)

Should never exceed 90-120mmHG

Arm - 50mmHG
Leg 60-70mmHG

23

Indications for Cyriax (friction massage)

Promote healing of connective and contractile tissue
To retain or regain mobility
Pain Modulation

24

Contraindications for Cyriax (friction massage)

Acute inflammation
Hematoma
Conditions that increase bleeding (hemophilia, anti-coagulants, steroids)
Debilitated/open skin

25

What are the general effects of massage CV system

Circulation
Dilation of vessels via local reflex
increase SV by venous return
decrease DVT by decrease in viscosity & hematocrit
edema - increases lymph flow via mechanical pressure

26

What are the general effects of massage on connective tissue

Decreases pain and improves tissue mobility

27

What are the general effects of massage on muscle tissue and nervous system?

in muscle tissue, it decreases spasm, and decreases muscle hypertension. In the nervous system, it decreases pain via gateway theory of pain and also an increase in opiate production.

28

List the types of swelling in the body and describe the physiological effects behind why they occur.

Joint Swelling
cause by pressure of blood and joint fluid in a joint as a result of tearing of tissues an blood vessels or synovial irritation
Has appearance and feel of a water balloon.


Interstitial Swelling
caused by an increase of osmotic pressure in tissues which attracts water and creates swelling
has the appearance of “silly putty” when involved tissue is pressed

Cell Swelling
cells near death and unable to control the cell membrance can attract water and swell
Congestive heart failure
heart that is so stretched, it does not produce a large contractile force, ~10% left in heart → when it fills again, decreased CO due to more stretch from remaining blood left in the heart. easiest sign → swelling in all extremities.

Venous insufficiency

Kidney Failure
can’t filter out waste, so excess salt is left in the blood, which creates a gradiant, and swelling occurs.

29

What is the purpose of friction massage?

to mobilize adherent tissue
reduce/mobilize trigger points
increase local circulation
decrease pain

30

Types of friction massage (4)

cyriax, linear/parallel, circular friction, and cross-fiber friction