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Flashcards in hemaped Deck (35):
1

causes of microcytic anemia

(TAILS) Thalassemia; Anemia of chronic dse; Iron deficiency; Lead poisoning; sideroblastic anemia

2

causes of normocytic anemia

anemia of chronic dse; uremia; hypothyroidism; bone marrow failure(aplastic anemia)

3

causes of macrocytic anemia

folate deficiency; vit B12 deficiency; drug and alcohol-induced anemia

4

anemia caused by failure or autoimmune destruction of myeloid stem cells

aplastic anemia

5

viruses that cause aplastic anemia

parvovirus B19; hepatitis viruses; HIV; Epstein-Barr virus

6

causes of aplastic anemia

idiopathic; viruses; alklylating and antimetabolite agents; chloramphenicol; insecticides; benzene; radiation

7

typical peripheral blodd smear findings in aplastic anemia

hypocellularity and pancytopenia

8

aplastic anemia with microcephaly; microphthalmia; hearing loss; limb anomalies(absent radii and thumbs)

Fanconi's anemia

9

aka Diamond-Blackfan syndrome or congenital hypoplastic anemia

pure red cell aplasia

10

absence of erythrocyte precursor cells on bone marrow aspirate

pure red cell aplasia

11

most important sign in iron deficiency anemia

pallor

12

clinical manifestations in iron deficiency anemia

asymptomatic; lethargic; irritable; pale; easily fatigued; high output cardiac failure; koilonychia(spoon nails); pica

13

low retic count; microcytic; hypochromic RBC's; high RDW; low serum iron and ferritin; high TIBC

Iron deficiency anemia

14

due to decrease in alpha-globulin chain synthesis; dec retic count; microcytic; hypochromic; normal RDW; taget cells; Heinz bodies on PBS

alpha thalassemia

15

no beta-globin production; anemia at 6mos; splenomegaly;extramedullary hematopoiesis

Beta-thalassemia major(Cooley's anemia)

16

asymptomatic carriers of beta-thalassemia gene; mild or no anemia

Beta-thalassemia minor

17

definitive diagnosis of thalassemias

Hb electrophoresis

18

etiologies of hemolytic anemias

intrinsic RBC defects; autoimmune destruction; intravascular destruction

19

defect in membrane spectrin or ankyrin

spherocytosis

20

confirmatory test for spherocytosis

osmotic fragility test

21

curative treatment to spherocytosis

splenectomy

22

lack of enzyme needed by RBC to defend against oxidative stress leading to RBC destruction

G6PD deficiency

23

typical PBS finding in G6PD deficiency

Heinz cells; blister cells; bite cells; ghost cells (implying intravascular hemolytic anemia)

24

triggers of G6PD deficiency

FPAINNS Fava beans; Primaquine; ASA; Isoniazid; NSAIDS; Nitrofurantoin; Sulfa drugs

25

episodes of painful crisis due to hypoxic tissue injury from microvascular occlusions

sickle cell dse

26

radiologic findings in sickle cell dse

new bone formation on the external aspect of the skull (Crew cut or Hair on end appearanceon the skull radiographs)

27

definitive diagnosis in sickle cell dse

HbS on Hb electrophoresis

28

autoimmune platelet destruction; most common cause of thrombocytopenic purpura in children

ITP

29

five cardinal symptoms of TTP

FAT RN Fever; Anemia; Thrombocytopenia; Renal dysfunction; Nervous system damages

30

due to an acquired deficiency of a metaloproteinase (ADAMTS 13) that is responsible for cleaving the high molecular weight multimers of vWf

TTP

31

X-linked recessive deficiencies of Factor VIII or Factor IX

Hemophilia

32

Dx of hemophilia

normal BT PC and PT; prolonged PTT; decreased factor levels

33

most common inherited bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

34

treatment of mild bleeding in type I vWd

Desmopressin(causes release of vWf from endothelial stores)

35

Tx for severe vWd

Factor VIII concentrates which contain high vWf Ag