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Flashcards in nutriped Deck (51):
1

age of child where there is 3-fold increase in weight & 50% increase in length

1st year of life

2

term for intake of a nutrient deemed needed to meet the requirement for that nutrient by most healthy members of the pop'n

RDA

3

this includes RDA and recommendations of the FDA and Food and Nutrition Boards

Dietary Reference Intakes

4

amount of carbohydrates sufficient to prevent ketosis and hypoglycemia

5mg/kg/24hr

5

amino acids essential for low birthweight infants

cystine; arginine; taurine

6

released at the start of breastfeeding; watery; high lactose high protein

foremilk

7

released as feeding progresses until towards the end of feeding; creamy; high fat(5x mor)

hind milk

8

milk released in the first 8 days; watery; protein-rich; high in Ig & lactoferrin & lysozyme; Low fat and low carbs

colostrum

9

bioactive components in human milk

maternal sIgA; maternal white cells; lysozyme; milk lipids; oligosaccharides; lactoferrin

10

component of breastmilk that has anti-inflammatory; antibacterial; and anvtiviral activity

lactoferrin

11

major energy source in breastmilk; ~50% of total calories

fat

12

most abundant fatty acids in breastmilk

palmitic acid & oleic acid

13

essential fatty acid in breastmilk

linolenic acid&DHA(essential for rhodopsin); Linoleic acid; arachidonic acid

14

breastmilk compared to milk formula

BM has higher digestibility; better absorption; more membrane lipids; more LCPUFAs

15

a nitrogen containing carbohydrate that promotes colonization of the gut by lactobacillus bifidus that inhibits colonisation of bacteria

bifidus factor

16

functions in redox reactions; deficiency leads to hypochromic anemia; neutropenis; hypotonia and osteoporosis

Copper

17

oval or triangular spot of keratinized epithelium in the conjunctiva; seen in vitamin A deficiency

Bitot's spot

18

earliest manifestation of Vit A deficiency

nyctalopia

19

disease of growing bone which occurs in children only before of the epiphysis

rickets

20

horizntal depression along the lower anterior chest due to pulling of the softened ribs by the diaphragm during inspiration in vit D deficiency

Harrison groove

21

valgus deformity of 1 leg with varus deformity of the other leg seen in vit D deficiency

Windswept deformity

22

Tx of rickets

Vit D 300000-600000 IU orally or IM as 2-4 doses over one day(Stross therapy)

23

RBC hemolysis in premature infants; loss of neural integrity; posterior column and cerebellar dysfxn; pigmentary neuropathy

Vitamin E

24

deficieny leads to hemorrhagic disease of the NB

Vitamin K

25

vitamin K fxns

prothrombin formation; coagulation factors 279X

26

3 D's of niacin deficiency

pellagra(dermatitis; diarrhea; dementia)

27

contraindications to breastfeeding

galactosemia; mothers with septicemia;active TB;breast cancer;malaria;substance abuse; severe neurosis or psychosis

28

viruses demonstrated in breastmilk

CMV; Rubella; hep B; HTLV1; HSV

29

Reflexes present at birth

rooting reflex; sucking reflex; swallowing reflex

30

hormone that stimulates milk secretion by breast alveoli

prolactin

31

hormone that stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells around alveoli

oxytocin

32

should milk be refreeze?d?

NO

33

up to how many hours can frozen milk that has been thawed be kept in the fridge

24hrs

34

when to start weaning

begin at 6mos; avoid allergenic foods; introduce food one at a time; give iron-containing food; encourage zinc intake

35

introduced as additional foods; includes milk formula

complimentary food

36

additional foods aside from milk formula

replacement foods

37

why are new foods spaced 3-4days in introducing food to infants

to detect adverse reactions

38

infantile atrophy/inanition; loss of skin turgor; wrinkled loose skin; disappearance of subcutaneous fat

marasmus

39

treatment of marasmus

normalize diet based on IBW

40

protein-calorie malnutrition; principal symptoms are due to insufficient intake of protein of good biologic value

kwashiorkor

41

term for streaky red or gray hair in dark-haired children seen in kwashiorkor

hypochromtrichia

42

most characteristic change in kwashiorkor

decreased serum albumin

43

management of kwashiorkor

appropriate antibiotics for bacterial infxns; correct dehydration; oral or NG feeding with small; frequent feeds of dilute milk

44

describes children less than 3 years of age who grow at less than 5th percentile in the growth chart; have growth patterns that cross two major percentiles on the growth chart within 6 months; have growth velocity less than normal for age

failure to thrive

45

formula to calculate caloric needs

((120kcal/kg) x (ideal wt for ht in kg))/actual wt in kg

46

first predictors of obesity

high BW; overweight children; parental obesity

47

leading cause of pediatric hypertension

obesity

48

hypertension; glucose intolerance; hypertriglyceridemia; low HDL; abdominal central obesity

metabolic syndrome

49

rare complication of extereme exogenous obesity in w/c patients have severe cardiorespiratory distress and alveolar hypoventilation & a decrease in pulmonary; tidal; and expiratory reserve volumes

Pickwikian syndrome

50

Polycythemia; hypoxemia; cyanosis; cardiac enlargement; CHF; somnolence

Pickwikian syndrome

51

Aim in the treatment of obesity

halt weight not weight loss (weight maintenance)