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Wolfpacc Clues Complete > Hematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Deck (88):
1

What does high WBC and High PMN's tell you?

Stress demargination. (Stress response - post trauma)

2

What does a high WBC and <5% Blasts tell you?

Leukemoid reaction - seen in burn patients or any extreme stress
(extreme demargination looks like Leukemia), Metamyelocytes => Myelocytes

3

What does high WBC and Bands tell you?

Left shift - they have an infection

4

What does high WBC and >5% Blasts tell you?

Leukemia

5

What does high WBC and B Cells tell you?

Bacterial infection

6

What diseases have high eosinophils?

"NAACP"
N - Neoplasm (Lymphoma)
A - Allergy/ Asthma
A - Addison's disease (no cortisol -relative eosinophilia)
C - Collagen Vascular disease (lupus)
P - Parasites

7

What diseases have high Monocytes (>15%)?

"STELS"
Syphilis: chancre, rash, warts
TB: Hemoptysis, night sweats
EBV: Teen sick for a month
Listeria: Sick baby
Salmonella: Food poisoning

8

What do high Retics (>1%) tell you?

RBC is being destroyed peripherally

9

What do low reticulocytes tell you?

Decreased production of bone marrow - not working right

10

What is Poikilocytosis?

RBC's of different shapes

11

What is Anisocytosis?

RBC's with different sizes

12

What is the RBC normal lifespan?

120 days

13

What is the RBC lifespan when there is a problem?

60-90 days (same time as the shelf life of blood bank units)

14

What is the Platelet lifespan?

7 days

15

What does "Penia" tell you?

Low Levels - (Usually due to virus or drugs)

16

What does "Cytosis" tell you?

High levels

17

What does "Cythemia" tell you?

High levels

18

What is the difference between Plasma and Serum?

Plasma: No RBC's
Serum: No RBC's or Fibrinogen

19

What are the Microcytic Hypochromic Anemias?

Defect in Hb synthesis (RBC small and pale) "FAST lead"
F - Fe Deficiency
A - Anemia of Chronic Disease
S - Sideroblastic Anemia
T - Alpha and Beta Thalassemia's
L - Lead poisoning

20

What will you see with Iron Deficiency Anemia?

Increased TIBC(total iron binding capacity) associated with menses, GI bleeding, and Koilonychia (spooning of nails)

21

What will you see with Anemia of Chronic Disease?

Decreased TIBC (total iron binding capacity)

22

What will you see with Sideroblastic Anemia?

Decreased dALA synthase common with blood transfusions

23

What will you see with Alpha Thalassemia?

Seen in African Americans and Asian Americans (Chromosome 16- deletion)

24

What will you see in Beta Thalassemia?

Seen in Mediterranean's
(chromosome 122- point mutation)

25

What will you see in Lead Poisoning?

Decreased dALA dehydrogenase
decreased Ferrochelatase
blue lines on x-ray
history of eating old paint chips

26

What are the Megaloblastic Anemias?

Vitamin B-12 Deficiency
folate deficiency
alcohol

27

What are some causes of Vitamine B12 deficiency?

Tapeworms
Veganism
Type A gastritis
Pernicious Anemia

28

What are some causes of Folate Deficiency?

Old food, you will see Glossitis(inflammation of tongue) with the patient

29

What is the effect of Alcohol on the fetus?

FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
Smooth philtrum (space between nose- mouth, normal people have dimple)
short
polyclonal
midface hypoplasia
thin superior Vermilion border

30

What are the Intravascular Hemolytic Anemias?

IgM G6PD deficiency
cold autoimmune

31

What are some causes of G6PD Deficiency?

Sulfa drugs, mothballs, fava beans, sudden drop in Hb

32

What are some causes of Cold Autoimmune?

Mono
Mycoplasma infection
Antibody (IgM) bind to RBC's membrane
cold temp and causes agglutination

33

What are the Extravascular Hemolytic anemias?

Spherocytosis
warm autoimmune
Paroxysmal cold autoimmune
Sickle cell anemia

34

What is seen in Spherocytosis?

Defective Spherin or Ankyrin
Positive Osmotic Fragility test
High level of MCHC (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
teardrops cells

35

What is seen in Warm Autoimmune?

Anti-Rh Ab Dapsone, PTU, antimalarials, and sulfa drugs
Antibody (IgG) binds to RBC's membrane in warm temp

36

What is seen in Paroxysmal Cold Auto Autoimmune?

Bleeds after cold exposure Donath-Landsteiner Ab

37

What is seen in Sickle Cell Anemia?

Crew-cut on x-ray
Avascular Necrosis of femur

38

What are the Production Anemias?

Diamond-Blackfan
Aplastic Anemia

39

What is seen in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia?

They have low RBCs and double jointed thumbs

40

What is seen / causes in Aplastic Anemia?

Pancytopenia
Autoimmune
Benzene
AZT (Zidovudine an HIV antiviral drug)
Chloramphenicol (Ricketsia bacterial infections)
Radiation

41

What is Basophilic Stippling?

Lots of immature cells increased mRNA (seen in lead poisoning)

42

What is a Bite Cell?

Unstable Hb inclusions (seen in G6PD Deficiency)

43

What are Burr Cell/ Echinocyte?

Seen in Pyruvate Kinase deficiency
Liver disease
Post splenectomy

44

What is Cabot's Ring body?

Seen in Vitamin B12 Deficiency and lead poisoning

45

What is a Dohle Body?

PMN Leukocytosis (polymorphonuclear neutrophils, also called granulocytes)
(caused by infections, steroids, tumor)

46

What is a Drepanocyte?

Seen in Sickle cell Anemia

47

What is a Heinz body?

Seen when Hb precipitates and sticks to cell membranes in G6PD deficiency

48

What is a Howell-Jolly Body?

The spleen or bone marrow should have removed nuclei fragments.
(Seen in Hemolytic Anemia, spleen trauma, and CA)

49

What is a Pappenheimer body?

Iron inside cell (sideroblastic anemia)

50

What are Pencil Cell/ Cigar Cell?

Seen in iron deficiency anemia

51

What is Rouleaux formation?

Seen in Multiple Myeloma (Stacked coin look)

52

What is a Schistocyte?

Broken RBC (seen in DIC and artificial heart vlaves and others)

53

What is a Sideroblast?

Macrophages pregnant with Iron (caused by genetics and or multiple transfusions)

54

What is a Spherocyte?

Old RBC

55

What are Spur Cells / Acanthocytes?

Lipid bilayer disease

56

What is a Stomatocyte?

Seen in liver disease

57

What is a Target Cell/ Codocyte?

These have less Hb (seen in Thalassemias or iron deficiency)

58

What is a Tear Drop Cell/ Dacrocyte?

RBC's squeezed out of bone marrow. (Seen in Hemolytic Anemia and bone marrow CA)

59

What do Platelet problems cause?

Bleeding from skin and mucosa

60

What do Clotting problems cause?

Bleeding into cavities

61

What causes increased PTT and Bleeding Time?

Von Willebrand disease and SLE

62

What is Bernard-Soulier?

Baby with bleeding from skin and mucosa
(Big platelets and LOW GP-1b)

63

What is Glanzmann's?

Baby with bleeding from skin and mucosa (LOW GP-2b3a)

64

How does Factor 13 Deficiency present?

Umbilical stump bleeding
(this is the first time a baby has to stabalize a clot)

65

What is a Factor V - Leiden?

Protein C cannot break down Factor V

66

How does Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) present?

Heavy menstrual bleeding

67

What are the types of VWD?

Type 1 (AD): Decreased VW FActor Production
Type 2 (AD): Decreased VW Activity
(+ Ristocetin Aggregation test)
Type 3 (AR): No VWF

68

What is Hemophilia A?

Defective Factor VIII (<40% Activity)
Bleed into cavities (head, abdomen, etc)

69

What is Hemophilia B?

Factor IX deficiency
Bleed into joints (knee, etc)

70

What is Polycythemia Vera?

Hematocrit (Hct) >60% Decreased EPO, Budd-Chiari
Pruritis after bathing

71

What is Essential Thrombocythemia?

Very high platelets increased RBC's and WBC's

72

What is Histiocytosis X?

Histiocyte proliferation
Kid with Eczema, skill lesions
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease

73

What does the Coombs Test Tell you?

Antibody involved

74

What does the Direct Coombs Test tell you?

Antibody on surface (seen in hemolytic anemia)

75

What does Indirect Coombs Test tell you?

The Antibody is freely circulating in the serum

76

What is Type and Cross?

Blood that is matched by blood type and cross-reacted with the patient's blood for rejection

77

What is Type and Match?

Blood type and Wait

78

What is Forward Typing?

Uses Antibodies to detect Antigens

79

What is Backward Typing?

Used Antigens to detect Antibodies

80

What does blood type A tell you?

They have the A antigen and B antibodies

81

What does blood type O tell you?

They have no antigens (Universal donor)

82

What does blood type AB tell you?

Have both Antigens (universal recipient)

83

What does Rh+ tell you?

Has D Antigen

84

What does Rh- tell you?

Does not have the D Antigen

85

What is Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn?

Rh+ mom's blood mixes the Rh- fetal blood in first pregnancy
No risk to this child
All pregnancies to follow will be a risk, leading to a fetal demise

86

What is RhoGam?

Anti-D IgG

87

When do you give RhoGam?

1st Dose: Week 28 gestation
2nd Dose: 72 hours post-delivery
Any time a procedure would mix mom and fetal blood

88

What is INR ratio determined by?

Measured PT/ Control PT
therapeutic level is between 2-3
Normal level is 1