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Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (54):
1

What are the newborn screening tests?

"Please Check Baby Before Going Home"
P - PKU
C - CAH/ CF
B - Biotinidase/ Beta- Thalassemia
G - Galactosemia
H - Hypothyroidism/ Homocystinuria

2

What is Vater Syndrome?

V - Vertebral abnormality
A - Anal
TE - Tracheal Esophageal Fistula
R - Renal

3

What is the Average IQ?

85-100

4

What are the most common causes of mental retardation in the US?

FAS, Fragile X and Down's Syndrome

5

What is the APGAR test?

Neonatal Rating Scale (0-10) Greater than 7
Test @ 1 minute and 5 minutes
A - Appearance (Color)
P - Pulse
G - Grimace
A - Activity
R - Respiration

6

What is the most common eye infection in New Born

First day - Clear discharge due to Silver Nitrate
First week - Gonorrhea (purulent discharge)
Second week - Chlamydia
Third week - Herpes

7

What are the causes of Hyperbilirubinemia?

Sepsis, ABO Incompatibility, Hypothyroidism and Breast-feeding

8

What is the cause of Symmetrically small babies?

In Early onset: Chromosomal Abnormalities or TORCHES

9

What is the cause of Asymmetrically Small babies?

In Late onset: Poor maternal nutrition and vascular disease

10

What is the cause of large babies?

DM or twin-twin transfusions

11

What is Milia?

Neonatal white or pale yellow heads on malar area

12

What is Nevus Flammeus?

Port Wine Stain
- Permanent
- Unilateral of face or neck
- Vascular malformation
- Sturge - Weber syndrome - Vasculitis
- Mgt: Pulsed laser therapy

13

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

Red rash with oily skin and dry flaky hairline, crusty lesion

14

What are Mongolian spots?

Melanocytes on lower back

15

What is Erythema Toxicum?

White wheal on red area rash has Eosinophils

16

What is Subgaleal Hemorrhage?

Prolonged jaundice in newborns due to birthing trauma

17

What is Caput Succedaneum?

Bleeding under scalp (edema will cross suture lines)

18

What is Cephalohematoma?

Bleeding under bone (blood does not cross suture lines)

19

What is an Epstein's Pearl?

White pearls on hard palate

20

What is persistent eye drainage since birth usually due to?

Blocked Duct

21

What are wide sutures due to?

Hypothyroidism and Down's Syndrome

22

What causes a Cleft Palate?

Maxillary shelves did not fuse

23

What causes a Cleft Lip?

Medial nasal prominence did not fuse

24

What is the most common cause of no red reflex?

Cataracts - Increased incidence with high glucose or galactose, Rubella, Failure of light stimulating the retina by 3 months of life and if this does not occur the child will be blind

25

What is the most common cause of a White Reflex?

Retinoblastoma

26

What is the sign of a Clavicle Fracture?

Asymmeteric Moro reflex

27

Where is the most common site of a Clavicle fracture due to birth?

Middle third of the Clavicle

28

What is an Omphalocele?

Intestines protrude out of the umbilicus covered by peritoneum

29

What is Gastroschisis?

Wall defect lateral to midline - off center, abdominal wall with no sac covering

30

What is a Nephroblastoma?

Abdominal mass due to enlarged "Wilm's Tumor", hemihypertrophy and Aniridia

31

What is a Neuroblastoma?

Adrenal Medulla tumor
Hypsarrthymia
Opsoclonus
Increased urinary VMA

32

What is Polyhydramnios?

Too much amniotic fluid (baby can't swallow)

33

What are the most common causes of Oligohydramnios?

Abdominal Muscle Problem: Prune Belly
Renal Agenesis: Potters Syndrome

34

What is the most common cause of Polyhydramnios?

Neuromuscular problem: Werdnig Hoffman
GI problem: Duodenal atresia

35

What is Oligohydramnios?

Too little amniotic fluid (baby can't pee)

36

What is Fifth's disease?

Erythema Infectiosum "Slapped Cheeks"
B-19 Parvovirus
Aplastic anemia, in sickle cell patients
Hydrops Fetalis

37

What is Sixth's DIsease?

Roseola, Exanthema Subitum (fever disappears then rash appears)

38

What is Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease?

Mouth ulcers, will not eat or drink
Palm and sole rash caused by coxsackie virus

39

What is seen in Measles (Rubeola)?

CCCK: Cough, Coryza (runny nose), Conjunctivitis, Koplik Spot
Morbilliform blotchy rash

40

What is Molluscum Contagiosum

Flesh colored papules with a central dimple

41

What is Mumps?

Parotitis (Red Stenson's Duct)

42

What is Otitis Media?

Fluid in the middle ear

43

What is Pityriasis Rosea?

Herald Patch that migrates along skin lines in a Christmas Tree appearance

44

What is Rubella (German 3-day Measles)

Trunk rash
Lymphadenopathy behind ears
they don't look sick

45

How is Smallpox different from Chickenpox?

Smallpox is on the face, same stage of development and fever

46

What is seen with Varicella (Chickenpox)?

Red macule clear vesicle on red dot
Pus and scabbing
various stages of healing

47

What is Zellweger's?

Neonatal Seizures

48

What is the most common cause of delayed speech developement?

Hearing loss

49

What are the signs of child abuse?

Multiple Ecchymosis
Retinal Hemorrhage
Epidural / Subdural Hemorrhage
Spiral Fractures (twisted)
Multiple fractures in different stages of healing

50

What should you rule out when child abuse is suspected?

Osteogenesis Imperfecta, bleeding disorders, Fifth's disease and Mongolian spots

51

What is Congenital Hip Dysplasia?

Hip dislocation may be developed in uterus during delivery, found during new born eval, gluteal fold asymmetric

The Barlow/Ortolani maneuver test: there is a palpable "clunk: or click as the hip is dislocated in a posterior-superior direction

52

What is Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease?

A vascular necrosis of femoral head, more often in young children (4-8 y/o), mildly painful limb that develops insidiously. Range of motion is limited especially internal rotation and abduction, x-ray join effusion

53

What is Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis?

Gradual or acute separation of the proximal femoral growth plate with femur head slipping off femoral neck and rotating into inferior-posterior position. Most common during puberty and more in overweight individuals, present with a limp and pain recurring often to the knee
Limited hip internal rotation and outward rotation of lump with hip flexion
x-ray: epiphyseal displacement

54

What is TORCH Infection?

Toxoplasmosis: Hydrocephalus with generalized intracranial calcification and choriogenesis.
Others= HIV, Syphilis, Varicella, B-19
HIV= Most infected are asymptomatic, clinical symptoms-- Lymphadenopathy/Hepatosplenomegaly
Syphilis= Osteochondritis and Peridotites; skin rash on palms and soles, snuffles
Varicells = Pneumonia (neonatal); limb hypoplasia, cutaneous scar, seizure, MR
B-19 = Hydrops Fetalis
Rubella = Cataracts, deafness and heart defects, blueberry muffin spots
CMV = Microcephaly with periventricular calcification, petechia with thrombocytopenia, sensorineural hearing loss
Herpes = 1st week: Pneumonia/shock
2nd week: Skin vesicles, keratoconjunctivitis
3rd week: Acute Meningoencephalitis