Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (54):
What are the newborn screening tests?
"Please Check Baby Before Going Home"
P - PKU
C - CAH/ CF
B - Biotinidase/ Beta- Thalassemia
G - Galactosemia
H - Hypothyroidism/ Homocystinuria
What is Vater Syndrome?
V - Vertebral abnormality
A - Anal
TE - Tracheal Esophageal Fistula
R - Renal
What is the Average IQ?
What are the most common causes of mental retardation in the US?
FAS, Fragile X and Down's Syndrome
What is the APGAR test?
Neonatal Rating Scale (0-10) Greater than 7
Test @ 1 minute and 5 minutes
A - Appearance (Color)
P - Pulse
G - Grimace
A - Activity
R - Respiration
What is the most common eye infection in New Born
First day - Clear discharge due to Silver Nitrate
First week - Gonorrhea (purulent discharge)
Second week - Chlamydia
Third week - Herpes
What are the causes of Hyperbilirubinemia?
Sepsis, ABO Incompatibility, Hypothyroidism and Breast-feeding
What is the cause of Symmetrically small babies?
In Early onset: Chromosomal Abnormalities or TORCHES
What is the cause of Asymmetrically Small babies?
In Late onset: Poor maternal nutrition and vascular disease
What is the cause of large babies?
DM or twin-twin transfusions
What is Milia?
Neonatal white or pale yellow heads on malar area
What is Nevus Flammeus?
Port Wine Stain
- Unilateral of face or neck
- Vascular malformation
- Sturge - Weber syndrome - Vasculitis
- Mgt: Pulsed laser therapy
What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?
Red rash with oily skin and dry flaky hairline, crusty lesion
What are Mongolian spots?
Melanocytes on lower back
What is Erythema Toxicum?
White wheal on red area rash has Eosinophils
What is Subgaleal Hemorrhage?
Prolonged jaundice in newborns due to birthing trauma
What is Caput Succedaneum?
Bleeding under scalp (edema will cross suture lines)
What is Cephalohematoma?
Bleeding under bone (blood does not cross suture lines)
What is an Epstein's Pearl?
White pearls on hard palate
What is persistent eye drainage since birth usually due to?
What are wide sutures due to?
Hypothyroidism and Down's Syndrome
What causes a Cleft Palate?
Maxillary shelves did not fuse
What causes a Cleft Lip?
Medial nasal prominence did not fuse
What is the most common cause of no red reflex?
Cataracts - Increased incidence with high glucose or galactose, Rubella, Failure of light stimulating the retina by 3 months of life and if this does not occur the child will be blind
What is the most common cause of a White Reflex?
What is the sign of a Clavicle Fracture?
Asymmeteric Moro reflex
Where is the most common site of a Clavicle fracture due to birth?
Middle third of the Clavicle
What is an Omphalocele?
Intestines protrude out of the umbilicus covered by peritoneum
What is Gastroschisis?
Wall defect lateral to midline - off center, abdominal wall with no sac covering
What is a Nephroblastoma?
Abdominal mass due to enlarged "Wilm's Tumor", hemihypertrophy and Aniridia
What is a Neuroblastoma?
Adrenal Medulla tumor
Increased urinary VMA
What is Polyhydramnios?
Too much amniotic fluid (baby can't swallow)
What are the most common causes of Oligohydramnios?
Abdominal Muscle Problem: Prune Belly
Renal Agenesis: Potters Syndrome
What is the most common cause of Polyhydramnios?
Neuromuscular problem: Werdnig Hoffman
GI problem: Duodenal atresia
What is Oligohydramnios?
Too little amniotic fluid (baby can't pee)
What is Fifth's disease?
Erythema Infectiosum "Slapped Cheeks"
Aplastic anemia, in sickle cell patients
What is Sixth's DIsease?
Roseola, Exanthema Subitum (fever disappears then rash appears)
What is Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease?
Mouth ulcers, will not eat or drink
Palm and sole rash caused by coxsackie virus
What is seen in Measles (Rubeola)?
CCCK: Cough, Coryza (runny nose), Conjunctivitis, Koplik Spot
Morbilliform blotchy rash
What is Molluscum Contagiosum
Flesh colored papules with a central dimple
What is Mumps?
Parotitis (Red Stenson's Duct)
What is Otitis Media?
Fluid in the middle ear
What is Pityriasis Rosea?
Herald Patch that migrates along skin lines in a Christmas Tree appearance
What is Rubella (German 3-day Measles)
Lymphadenopathy behind ears
they don't look sick
How is Smallpox different from Chickenpox?
Smallpox is on the face, same stage of development and fever
What is seen with Varicella (Chickenpox)?
Red macule clear vesicle on red dot
Pus and scabbing
various stages of healing
What is Zellweger's?
What is the most common cause of delayed speech developement?
What are the signs of child abuse?
Epidural / Subdural Hemorrhage
Spiral Fractures (twisted)
Multiple fractures in different stages of healing
What should you rule out when child abuse is suspected?
Osteogenesis Imperfecta, bleeding disorders, Fifth's disease and Mongolian spots
What is Congenital Hip Dysplasia?
Hip dislocation may be developed in uterus during delivery, found during new born eval, gluteal fold asymmetric
The Barlow/Ortolani maneuver test: there is a palpable "clunk: or click as the hip is dislocated in a posterior-superior direction
What is Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease?
A vascular necrosis of femoral head, more often in young children (4-8 y/o), mildly painful limb that develops insidiously. Range of motion is limited especially internal rotation and abduction, x-ray join effusion
What is Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis?
Gradual or acute separation of the proximal femoral growth plate with femur head slipping off femoral neck and rotating into inferior-posterior position. Most common during puberty and more in overweight individuals, present with a limp and pain recurring often to the knee
Limited hip internal rotation and outward rotation of lump with hip flexion
x-ray: epiphyseal displacement