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NCLEX-RN (8) Pediatrics > Hematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematology Deck (13)
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1
Describe:

Sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that changes the shape of the red blood cell from a circle to a crescent moon shape.

This causes decreased oxygen on the RBCs.

2
Describe:

Sickle cell anemia crisis

Immediate complication

A sickle cell anemia crisis is when RBCs clump together and block small blood vessels that carry blood to organs.

It causes severe pain.

3

What are the interventions for sickle cell anemia?

  • fluids
  • oxygen
  • pain meds

4
Describe:

von Willebrand's Disease

von Willebrand's disease is a genetic bleeding disorder

It caused by missing or defective von Willebrand factor (VWF), a clotting protein.

5
Describe:

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an X-linked genetic disorder that is a group of bleeding disorders

The most common is a clotting factor VIII or clotting factor IX deficiency.

6

Which sex gets hemophilia much more often?

Males, since it's an X-linked genetic disorder.

 

7

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of hemophilia or von Willebrand's disease?

  • Bleeding
  • nose bleeds (epistaxis)
  • bruising
  • excessive bleeding
  • joint bleeding - will report pain, tenderness, and swelling
  • excessive menstrual bleeding

8
Treatment:

Hemophilia and von Willebrand's

Replace missing clotting factors

9

What are the immediate interventions for a child with hemophilia or von Willebrand's Disease that has an acute injury that is causing bleeding?

  • immobilize the joint
  • apply ice to the injured joint
  • apply pressure to the injured joint or area that is bleeding for at least 15 minutes

10
Teaching:

Hemophilia and von Willebrand's

  • avoid contact sports
  • wear pads and helmet when learning to walk or doing sports such as skating or bicycling

11
Describe:

β-Thalassemia Major

β-Thalassemia Major is a genetic disorder that causes low hemoglobin levels and anemia.

12

Which groups is β-Thalassemia major more common in?

β-Thalassemia major is more common in those of Mediterranean descent such as:

  • Italians
  • Greeks
  • Syrians

13
Treatment:

β-Thalassemia Major

blood transfusions