Hematology Flashcards

Review the most common pediatric hematology diseases.

1
Q

Describe:

Sickle cell anemia

A

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that changes the shape of the red blood cell from a circle to a crescent moon shape.

This causes decreased oxygen on the RBCs.

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2
Q

Describe:

Sickle cell anemia crisis

Immediate complication

A

A sickle cell anemia crisis is when RBCs clump together and block small blood vessels that carry blood to organs.

It causes severe pain.

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3
Q

What are the interventions for sickle cell anemia?

A

HOP:
* Hydrate with fluids
* Oxygen
* Pain meds
* avoid visiting high altitude or cold places to avoid vasoconstriction

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4
Q

Describe:

von Willebrand’s Disease

A

von Willebrand’s disease is a genetic bleeding disorder.

It caused by missing or defective von Willebrand factor (VWF), a clotting protein.

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5
Q

Describe:

Hemophilia

A

Hemophilia is an X-linked genetic disorder that is a group of bleeding disorders.

The most common is a clotting factor VIII or clotting factor IX deficiency.

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6
Q

Which sex gets hemophilia much more often?

A

Males, since it’s an X-linked genetic disorder.

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7
Q

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of hemophilia or von Willebrand’s disease?

A
  • Bleeding
  • nose bleeds (epistaxis)
  • bruising
  • excessive bleeding
  • joint bleeding - will report pain, tenderness, and swelling
  • excessive menstrual bleeding
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8
Q

Treatment:

Hemophilia and von Willebrand’s

A

Replace missing clotting factors

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9
Q

What are the immediate interventions for a child with hemophilia or von Willebrand’s Disease that has an acute injury that is causing bleeding?

A
  • immobilize the joint
  • apply ice to the injured joint
  • apply pressure to the injured joint or area that is bleeding for at least 15 minutes
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10
Q

Teaching:

Hemophilia and von Willebrand’s

A
  • avoid contact sports
  • wear pads and helmet when learning to walk or doing sports such as skating or bicycling
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