Childhood Infectious Diseases Flashcards Preview

NCLEX-RN (8) Pediatrics > Childhood Infectious Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Childhood Infectious Diseases Deck (39)
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1

What should you do if you notice a rash on a child?

Always take rashes seriously. Many look the same but have different causes.

Assess the child for exposure to infectious diseases, medications, and allergies. Report rash to HCP.

2

How are most childhood infectious diseases prevented?

By getting the child vaccinated.

Memorize the vaccination schedule.

3

How are infectious diseases treated if there is no cure?

Provide supportive care until the virus passes:

  • antipyretics and analgesics
  • fluids
  • quiet environment
  • isolation from others

4

What is the priority concern with a child who is immunosuppressed?

The priority concern is to prevent them from getting an infection.

Implement neutropenic precautions.

5
Describe:

Measles (Rubeola)

Measles (Rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by a virus.

  • It is transmitted by airborne or direct contact with infectious droplets.

It is preventable by getting the MMR vaccination.

6

What is the source of infection for Measles (Rubeola)?

  • respiratory tract
  • blood
  • urine

7

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of Measles (Rubeola)?

  1. fever, lethargy, malaise
  2. The 3 "C's"
    • coryza (inflammation of the mucosa of the nose)
    • cough
    • conjunctivitis
  3. A red rash starting on face and going down the body

8
Interventions:

Measles (Rubeola)

Interventions for Measles (Rubeola) focus on preventing transmission and supportive measures until the infection passes:

  • airborne, droplet, and contact precautions
  • quiet activities
  • cool mist vaporizer for cough and coryza

9
Medications:

Measles (Rubeola)

  • antipyretics and analgesics: to decrease fever and discomfort
  • vitamin A: to prevent reinfection later in life

10
Describe:

Rubella (German measles)

Rubella (German measles) is an infectious disease that is caused by a virus.

  • It is transmitted by droplet or direct contact with infectious droplets

It is preventable by getting the MMR vaccination.

11

What is the source of infection for Rubella (German measles)?

  • respiratory secretions
  • blood
  • stool
  • urine
  • cross the placenta

12
Signs and symptoms:

Rubella (German measles)

  • fever, malaise, and lethargy
  • pinkish-red rash that begins on face and spreads to rest of body

13

Who should be kept away from children with Rubella (German measles)?

Keep pregnant women and pregnant nurses away from children with Rubella (German measles).

The virus can harm the fetus.

14
Interventions:

Rubella (German measles)

Interventions for Rubella (German measles) focus on preventing transmission and supportive measures until the infection passes:

  • droplet and contact precautions
  • quiet activities
  • antipyretics and analgesics: To decrease fever and discomfort

15
Describe:

Mumps

Mumps is an infectious disease caused by a virus.

  • It is transmitted by direct contact or infectious droplets.

It is preventable by getting the MMR vaccination

16

What is the source of infection for Mumps?

Mumps virus can be in the saliva and possibly the urine also.

17

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of mumps?

  • fever, malaise, and lethargy
  • jaw or ear pain and parotid gland swelling

18
Interventions:

Mumps

  • bed rest until parotid swelling goes down
  • give soft foods due to pain
  • apply hot or cold therapy to face depending on what the client says feels better

19
Describe:

Chickenpox (varicella)

Chickenpox (varicella) is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is transmitted by airborne, droplet, and contact.

It is preventable by getting the varicella vaccination.

20

What is the source of infection for varicella (chickenpox)?

Chickenpox virus is in the respiratory secretions and skin lesions.

21
Signs and symptoms:

Chickenpox (Varicella)

  • fever, lethargy, malaise
  • macular rash that starts on trunk and moves to face and limbs

22

How long should the child with Chickenpox (varicella) be kept at home to prevent transmission?

For chickenpox (varicella) isolate the child at home until the vesicles have dried.

23
Medications:

Chickenpox (varicella)

  • antivirals
  • varicella-zoster immune globulin

24
Describe:

Pertussis (Whopping cough)

Pertussis (Whopping cough) is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria. It is transmitted by droplet and contact.

It is preventable by getting the DTaP vaccination.

25

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of pertussis (Whopping cough)?

  • severe cough with "whopping" sound
  • cyanosis and respiratory distress

26
Describe:

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It is transmitted by contact and droplet

It is preventable by getting the DTaP vaccination.

27

What is the source of infection for diphtheria?

Diphtheria bacteria is found in the mouth and nose and possibly on the skin if it's cutaneous diphtheria.

28

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of diphtheria?

  • fever and lethargy
  • purulent nasal discharge
  • neck edema, "bull neck"

29
Interventions:

Diphtheria

  • contact and droplet precautions
  • diphtheria antitoxin
  • possible antibiotics
  • possible tracheostomy

30

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It is transmitted by contact and enteric (in the stool).

It is preventable by getting the IPV vaccination.

31

What is the source of infection for poliomyelitis?

Poliomyelitis virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

32

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of poliomyelitis?

  • fever, lethargy, malaise
  • soreness and stiffness of muscles that can lead to paralysis

33
Interventions:

Poliomyelitis

Because there is no cure for poliomyelitis the interventions focus on supportive care:

  • PT, OT
  • monitor for respiratory paralysis

34
Describe:

Mononucleosis

Mononucleosis is an infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is transmitted by contact.

It is known as the "kissing disease".

 

 

35

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of mononucleosis?

  • extreme lethargy
  • enlarged tonsils and sore throat
  • enlarged lymph nodes
  • spleen can become enlarged
  • possible rash

36
Interventions:

Mononucleosis

There is no curative treatment for mono, it must run its course. Treatment is supportive:

  • assess for splenic rupture which would include left-sided abdominal pain and shoulder pain

37
Describe:

Influenza

Influenza is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It is transmitted by contact or droplet.

It can be prevented by getting the influenza vaccine (it doesn't always work though).

38
Signs and symptoms:

Influenza

  • fever and lethargy
  • cough and sore throat
  • possible vomiting and diarrhea

39
Interventions:

Influenza

Influenza is not curable, so it must run its course. Treatment is supportive care:

  • rest and fluids
  • antipyretics
  • may get an antiviral