What are the general interventions for any kidney or urinary disorder?
- monitor intake and output
- monitor vital signs
- get a daily weight at same time each day
What is the last resort treatment for renal diseases that cause kidney failure?
Dialysis or Kidney transplant.
An autoimmune disease that damages the glomeruli.
It is caused by untreated strep throat or lupus that causes inflammation in the kidneys.
What are the severe complications of untreated glomerulonephritis?
- kidney failure and heart failure due to fluid build-up
- hypertensive encephalopathy and seizures due to toxin build-up
What are the urine characteristics with glomerulonephritis?
- hematuria: smokey-brown urine
- proteinuria: foamy urine
The glomeruli are no longer able to filter blood, protein, or fluids properly.
What are the diet restrictions for glomerulonephritis?
- limit sodium and fluids if edematous
- limit potassium if oliguria
- antibiotics for strep infection
What are the interventions for glomerulonephritis due to toxin build-up in the blood?
Seizure precautions and anticonvulsants if seizures occur.
An autoimmune disease where the nephrons are damaged.
The cause is unknown, but risk factors are diabetes mellitus and lupus.
What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome?
- massive proteinuria: foamy urine
- corticosteroids to decrease inflammation
What is the teaching to the parents for a child with nephrotic syndrome?
To have child avoid people with infections since child may be on immunosuppressants.
Epispadias and hypospadias
Congenital defects in which the ureter opening is in the wrong spot.
How is epispadias and hypospadias treated?
Surgery to correct the opening: is usually done between 6 - 12 months old before toilet training begins.
Is a child with epispadias or hypospadias circumcised?
Usually not, since the surgeon may use the foreskin to reconstruct the urethral opening.
What tube will the infant have after surgery for urethral reconstruction?
Child may have a urinary diversion or stent to keep the urethral opening patent while the urinary meatus (opening) is healing.
After how long would the surgeon be called if there is no urine output after urethral surgical reconstruction?
Call after 1 hour: there may be a kink or sediment blocking the opening.
Urethral reconstruction surgery
- anticholinergics to relieve bladder spasms
What is the teaching to parents about home care for a child with urethral surgery reconstruction?
- no tub baths until tube or stent is removed
- monitor fluid intake and output at home by monitoring wet diapers
- monitor for signs and symptoms of infection
- purulent drainage
- excessive edema