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Gastrointestinal > Hepatitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hepatitis Deck (24):
1

What is the first test performed in the diagnosis of Hepatitis?

Hep Bs Ag
(postive surface antigen shows active disease acute/chronic)

2

What does a high viral load mean?

Patient is highly infective

3

What does a positive Hep Bs Ab mean?

The patient has either recovered from an acute infection or has been immunised

4

How can you tell the difference between someone who has been immunised and a recovered hepatitis patient?

Those who have recovered will had the Hep B core Ab whereas those who have been immunised will not

5

How is Hep A spread?

Faecal-Oral
A for Arse

6

What are the risk factors for Hep A?

Poor hygeine
Over crowding
Gay men
IV drug users

7

Is Hep A acute or chronic?

Acute

8

How do you diagnose Hep A?

Clotted blood for serology
(Gold top vacutainer)
Look for Hep A IgM

9

How do you control Hep A?

Improve hygiene and provide prophylactic vaccination

10

Where is Hep E most common?

The tropics

11

How does Hep E present clinically?

Like hep A

12

How is Hep E spread?

Faecal-Oral

13

When do you find Hep D?

In patients with Hep B

14

How is Hep B spread?

Mother to child
Blood
Sex

15

What are the risk factors for Hep B?

Multiple sexual partners
IV drug users
Children of infected mothers

16

How can you control Hep B?

Safe blood
Safe sex
Prevent needle exchange
Screen pregnant women
Vaccination
Prophylaxis

17

Is C acute or chronic?

Chronic

18

How is hep C spread?

The same as Hep B

19

What is the management for Acute Viral Hepatitis?

Manage symptoms
Monitor for encephalopathy and further infections
Notify public health
Trace contacts

20

What is the management of chronic viral hepatitis?

Antivirals
Vaccinations for other hepatitides
Reduce alcohol intake
Screen for cancer

21

When is antiviral treatment used in the treatment of hepatitis?

Patients who:
Chronic infection
At risk of complications
Without contraindications (cancer)
Have correct attitude

You must treat before complications and when there is evidence of inflammation

22

What are the main antivirals used in hepatitis and what are their side effects?

Peginterferon - Flu like symptoms
Ribavirin - anaemia
Telaprevir and Boceprevir - Rash and anaemia

23

What is peginterferon?

A long acting interferon that is normally produced by the body in response to viral infections

24

What is the clinical presentation of autoimmune hepatitis?

Hepatomegaly
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
Elevated AST and ALT
Elevated PT
General symptoms like Malaise, fatique, anorexia, abdominal pain