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Flashcards in High-Rise Procedures Deck (25)
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What hazards or difficulties might be encountered in high rise buildings? (List of 10)

Metabolic heat stress.
Delays in mounting firefighting and rescue operations.
Fixed installations unavailable for use.
Communication difficulties.
Antisocial behaviour.
Fire growth and smoke travel.
Layout of buildings.
Wind effects.
Falling objects.
Evacuation of occupants.


What brings on metabolic heat stress?

The high physical workload on firefighters and the intensity of conditions encountered.


What can cause delays in mounting firefighting and rescue operations?

Access can be limited by the number of stairways and lift shafts available.
Security measures can hinder progress (coded entry systems, multi lock doors)
The time taken to provide resources to the upper floors can increase the likelihood of fire spread.


What is a fixed installation?

A measure designed into a building to assist firefighting operations.


Why might high-rise buildings present communication difficulties?

The distance between the incident and the IC can result in communication difficulties.


What examples of anti-social behaviour can prove hazardous to staff attending a high rise incident? (list of 6)

Rubbish in lobbies and staircases.
Fire doors wedged or propped open.
Lights removed or smashed.
Vandalised rising mains.
Razor blades and needles fixed to building facilities.
Burning materials left in lifts or escape routes.


How might stairways act like chimneys?

Due to their higher heat than air, the products of combustion (smoke and flammable gasses) are able to rise, increasing the risk of fire spread to other floors.


What is the 'coanda effect'?

External fire spread, whereby a fire breaks out of a compartment window and then spread to another compartment or floor.


In a high rise building, what three factors might have an impact on safe movement?

Large or complex floor layouts.
The operation of fire engineering systems.
A lack of information on the internal layout.


Wind speed _______ with____

Wind speed INCREASES with HEIGHT.


What is the 'planing effect'?

Glass falling from a height, travelling a great horizontal distance due to the effect of wind.


What precautions must be implemented to combat falling debris?

Staff and appliances should be kept at a safe distance.
Staff should be in full PPE.
Cordons should be placed around the base of the building.


How many people can potentially be in a commercial high-rise building?

Up to 10,000.
Evacuation can take up to an hour.


What is a phased evacuation?

Where the building is evacuated in stages.
It usually starts with the fire floor and one floor above.


During an evacuation, what three factors can affect firefighting operations?

The type of evacuation.
The progress of the evacuation.
The number and mobility of the people being evacuated.


Building regulations require all buildings over which height to make provisions for firefighting?

All buildings over 18 metres must make provisions.


What height buildings must have a wet rising main?

Any building above 60m (50m as of 2006)


What 3 basic facilities will be in high rise buildings.

Firefighting shafts.
Dry or wet rising systems.
A fire lift.


What firefighting features might be found in modern high rise buildings? (list of 10)

A firefighting lobby.
A firefighting shaft.
Stair pressurisation system.
Communication systems.
Floor display plan.
Fire control centre.
Crossover floors.
Sprinkler systems and other fixed installations.
Combined heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC).


What procedure should be in place when using a firefighting lift?

One firefighter should be instructed to take control of the lift until they are relieved.


What is a bridgehead?

A forward control point where resources are gathered to fight a fire, and effectively control firefighting teams.


Where pre-planning is unavailable, where would a bridgehead be established?

At least two floors below the fire floor.


What pieces of equipment should be taken to the bridgehead? (list of 10)

45mm hose.
Two branches.
One BA control board.
Two BA sets.
IEC pack.
Long line.
Breaking in gear.
Access keys/codes.
Floor plans (if available)


What are the 4 incident sectors?

Search sector.
Fire sector.
Lobby Sector.


How many floors are included in the fire sector?

The floors directly involved, and a minimum of one above and one below.