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GI tract > Histo > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histo Deck (50):
1

Organs of the GI tract include:

mouth, most of pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

2

What are the accessory digestive organs?

Tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

3

What accessory digestive organs are associated with physical/mechanical breakdown?

tongue and teeth

4

What accessory digestive organs are associated with secretions?

salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

5

From the lumen outward what are the four layers of tissue present?

1. Mucosa
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis externa
4. Serosa or adventitia

6

What are the 3 layers of the mucosal lining of the GI tract?

1. Lining epithelium
2. Lamina propria
3. Muscularis mucosae

7

What are the two cell types found in the lining epithelium?

1. nonkeratinized stratified squamous epitheliium
2. Simple columnar epithelium

8

The lamina propria is _____ connective tissue.

loose (areolar)

9

The muscularis mucosae is _____ muscle.

smooth

10

Smooth muscle tissue of the digestive system wall has two layers. What are they?

1. Inner circular layer
2. Outer longitudinal layer

11

T/F the inner circular layer can be thickened to form sphincters or valves?

True fact of life

12

Where is the serosa in relation to the other tissues?

It surrounds the smooth muscle layer

13

The serosa is made up of what two types of tissue?

1. Mesothelium
2. Loose (areolar) connective tissue

14

What type of tissue is the adventitia made up of?

Loose (areolar) connective tissue

15

What epithelial tissue lines the esophagus?

Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

16

What type of muscle tissue is found in the the esophageal lining?

The muscularis externa has both skeletal (upper 1/3) and smooth muscle tissue (lower 1/3) and a mix of both in the middle 1/3

17

What are the two types of mucous glands found in the esophagus?

1. Esophageal glands (proper)
2. Esophageal cardiac glands

18

Where are esophageal glands (proper) found?

in the submucosa

19

Where are esophageal cardiac glands found?

In the lamina propria

20

What are the four divisions of the stomach?

1. Cardia
2. Fundus
3. Body
4. Pylorus
(histologically speaking the body and fundus are combined)

21

The cardiac glands are primarily _____ glands.

mucous

22

The gastric/fundic glands secrete what two things?

HCl and pepsin

23

The pyloric glands are primarily ____ glands.

mucous

24

The surface mucous cells of the stomach are what kind of cells?

simple columnar epithelium

25

Gastric pits in the stomach lead to _____ _____.

gastric glands

26

What are the layers of smooth muscle in the stomach?

outer longitudinal
middle circular
inner oblique

27

What are the three parts of the small intestine?

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

28

The small intestine has a large surface area which is important in what?

absorption

29

What are some examples of absorptive cells in the small intestine?

Vili
Microvili

30

What kind of epithelial cells line the small intestine?

simple columnar epithelium
absorptive enterocytes
goglet cells

31

Crypts of Lieberkuhn are what?

Intestinal glands

32

Where are brunner's glands found (glands that produce alkaline mucous)?

In the duodenum

33

Does the large intestine have plicae circulares and villi?

Nope

34

What type of epithelial cells are found in the colon?

simple columnar epithelium

35

Are Crypts of Lieberkuhn found in the large intestine?

Yes

36

What are the absorptive cells of the colon called?

coloncytes

37

What cells are found in the lamina propria of the large intestine?

lymphoid cells and nodules

38

The pancreas has three parts. What are they?

head
body
tail

39

The pancreas functions 98-99% as a ______ gland.

exocrine

40

What are the two sources of blood for the liver?

1. The hepatic artery (oxygenated blood)
2. The hepatic portal vein (deoxygenated blood with newly absorbed nutrients, drugs, and possible microbes and toxins from GI tract)

41

Where are oxygen, most nutrients, and certain toxic substances taken up by the hepatocytes? This is also where the hepatocytes products and stored nutrients are secreted back into the blood.

Liver sinusoids

42

The liver is composed of structural and functional units called ___ ____.

Hepatic lobules

43

What do the hepatic lobules surround?

A central vein

44

What are the largest cells lining the sinusoids of the hepatocytes called and what do they do?

Called Kupffer cells
Phagocytic properties- helps break down damaged/old RBCs that reach the liver from the spleen.

45

chief cells are also called ______ ____.

Zymogenic cells

46

Where does most absorption take place?

about 90% in the small intestine

47

What are plicae circulares and where are they found?

permanent circular folds in the small intestine

48

What are the absorptive cells of the small intestine called?

enterocytes

49

Chyme from the stomach goes into the duodenum and it's very acidic. How does the body regulate the acidity?

Brunner's glands in the duodenum produce an alkaline mucous to neutralize the pH

50

Where are teniae coli found?

In the large intestine