Flashcards in Lower abdomen Deck (56):
Whats the flow of food as it passes through the stomach to the anal canal?
Stomach-Duodenum-Jejunum-Ileum-Cecum-Ascending colon-Transverse colon-Descending colon-Sigmoid colon-Rectum-Anal canal
SDJICATDSRA (try making an acronym for that)
What is the entrance to the esophagus called?
The cardiac orifice
What is the exit to the duodenum called?
T/F the stomach is lined with rugae?
Of the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum, which ones are mobile and which ones are immobile?
Duodenum is fixed and relatively immobile
Jejunum and ileum are very mobile
What are the plicae circularis?
They are permanent folds within the intestine
What are the four parts of the duodenum?
superior, descending, inferior, ascending
The jejunal and ileal arteries are branches of what?
the superior mesenteric artery
Meckel's diverticulum is in what part of the GI tract?
Where is Meckel's diverticulum located?
about 1 meter proximal to the ileocecal valve
The large intestine is also known as the ___. and it frames what?
Known as the colon
It frames the small intestines
What are the five segments of the colon?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
What are the two flexures of the large intestine?
Right colic- hepatic flexure
Left colic- splenic flexure
The appendix opens into what?
T/F- the appendix opens into the cecum superiorly?
false, inferiorly, just below the ileocecal orifice
There is a triangular swatch of mesentary between the ileum and the appendix. What is that called?
What is appendicitis?
an inflamed appendix
Pain from appendicitis is referred to what level?
There are 3 bands of smooth muscle that parallel the length of the colon and they produce outpouchings called what?
Teniae coli muscles produce haustra oli which are the outpouchings
What are epiploic appendage appendages and where are they found?
fat tags found along the colon
The celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries are all branches off of what?
The abdominal aorta
What does the celiac trunk supply?
the liver, gallbladder, espophagus, stomach, pancreas and spleen
What are the three main branches off the celiac trunk?
What does the superior mesenteric artery supply and how does it do it?
It supplies the small intestine by sending out 15-18 intestinal arteries
What else does the superior mesenteric artery supply via which arteries?
It supplies proximal 2/3 of transverse colon via the ileocolic, right colic and middle colic arteries
The inferior mesenteric artery supplies what via which arteries?
It supplies the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon via the left colic, sigmoid, and superior rectal arteries
T/F there is a lot of variation in the SMA and IMA?
Anastomoses exist between colic branches for collateral circulation. These form a consisten vascular arc around the colon via what?
The marginal artery of Drummond
The gastroduodenal artery gives off the pancreaticoduodenal arteries
The SMA gives off a branch that helps supply the pancreas. What is it?
It gives off the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Which two arteries anastomose and supply the head of the pancreas and duodenum?
the pancreaticodudodenal and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
The renal arteries supply what?
The renal arteries have branches that supply what two things?
The adrenal glands and the ureters
The renal and gonadal arteries are lateral branches off of what?
the abdominal aorta
The renal arteries enter the ____ of each kidney to supply it.
Which artery is more superior, the renal or gonadal artery?
The renal artery
A what level does the inferior vena cava begin?
The inferior vena cava returns blood to the heart from where? (5 things)
Lower limbs, most of the back, abdominal wall, and abdominopelvic viscera
The portal vein is formed by what?
the union of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins
The portal vein drains what?
the spleen, pancreas, gall bladder, abdominal GI tract
gastric vein &
paraumbilical vein &
superior rectal vein &
middle/inferior rectal vein
colic vein &
T/F the portal venous system doesn't have valves?
The portal-caval anastomoses- clinical notes:
because of portal hypertensions, which restricts blood flow, the caval veins can become engorged, possibly dilated and varicose
The portal-caval anastomoses- clinical notes:
dilated infra & mid. rectal veins produce hemorrhoids that can lead to vascualr rupture and severe hemorrhaging
also good to know
Innervation to the viscera of the abdomen is via what?
the autonomic nerve plexus
Where do sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for the abdomen originate from?
Sympathetic- from T5-L2 (thoracolumbar)
Parasympathetic- from CN X and S2-4 (craniosacral)
Preganglionic splanchnic nerves synapse where?
You know this is going to be a test question.
The answer is in the collateral ganglia
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the ganglia to reach the effector organs. How do the post synaptic fibers travel?
They travel on all the main arterial branches
Where do parasympathetic preganglionic nerves from CN X travel?
on upper arterial branches (celiac trunk, SMA, renal)
Where do preganglionic nerves from S2-4 travel?
on the lower arterial branches (IMA and branches)
Where do synapses of the parasympathetics occur?
within the effector organ
What are the 4 major autonomic ganglia and plexuses of the abdomen?
1. Celiac ganglion
2. Superior mesenteric ganglion
3. Aorticorenal ganglion
4. Inferior mesenteric ganglion