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Flashcards in Lower abdomen Deck (56):
1

Whats the flow of food as it passes through the stomach to the anal canal?

Stomach-Duodenum-Jejunum-Ileum-Cecum-Ascending colon-Transverse colon-Descending colon-Sigmoid colon-Rectum-Anal canal
SDJICATDSRA (try making an acronym for that)

2

What is the entrance to the esophagus called?

The cardiac orifice

3

What is the exit to the duodenum called?

Pyloric sphincter

4

T/F the stomach is lined with rugae?

Trooth

5

Of the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum, which ones are mobile and which ones are immobile?

Duodenum is fixed and relatively immobile
Jejunum and ileum are very mobile

6

What are the plicae circularis?

They are permanent folds within the intestine

7

What are the four parts of the duodenum?

superior, descending, inferior, ascending

8

The jejunal and ileal arteries are branches of what?

the superior mesenteric artery

9

Meckel's diverticulum is in what part of the GI tract?

the ileum

10

Where is Meckel's diverticulum located?

about 1 meter proximal to the ileocecal valve

11

The large intestine is also known as the ___. and it frames what?

Known as the colon
It frames the small intestines

12

What are the five segments of the colon?

cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon

13

What are the two flexures of the large intestine?

Right colic- hepatic flexure
Left colic- splenic flexure

14

The appendix opens into what?

The cecum

15

T/F- the appendix opens into the cecum superiorly?

false, inferiorly, just below the ileocecal orifice

16

There is a triangular swatch of mesentary between the ileum and the appendix. What is that called?

The mesoappendix

17

What is appendicitis?

an inflamed appendix

18

Pain from appendicitis is referred to what level?

T10

19

There are 3 bands of smooth muscle that parallel the length of the colon and they produce outpouchings called what?

Teniae coli muscles produce haustra oli which are the outpouchings

20

What are epiploic appendage appendages and where are they found?

fat tags found along the colon

21

The celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries are all branches off of what?

The abdominal aorta

22

What does the celiac trunk supply?

the liver, gallbladder, espophagus, stomach, pancreas and spleen

23

What are the three main branches off the celiac trunk?

common hepatic
Left gastric
Splenic artery

24

What does the superior mesenteric artery supply and how does it do it?

It supplies the small intestine by sending out 15-18 intestinal arteries

25

What else does the superior mesenteric artery supply via which arteries?

It supplies proximal 2/3 of transverse colon via the ileocolic, right colic and middle colic arteries

26

The inferior mesenteric artery supplies what via which arteries?

It supplies the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon via the left colic, sigmoid, and superior rectal arteries

27

T/F there is a lot of variation in the SMA and IMA?

True

28

Anastomoses exist between colic branches for collateral circulation. These form a consisten vascular arc around the colon via what?

The marginal artery of Drummond

29

The gastroduodenal artery gives off the pancreaticoduodenal arteries

yep

30

The SMA gives off a branch that helps supply the pancreas. What is it?

It gives off the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

31

Which two arteries anastomose and supply the head of the pancreas and duodenum?

the pancreaticodudodenal and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries

32

The renal arteries supply what?

The kidneys

33

The renal arteries have branches that supply what two things?

The adrenal glands and the ureters

34

The renal and gonadal arteries are lateral branches off of what?

the abdominal aorta

35

The renal arteries enter the ____ of each kidney to supply it.

The hilum

36

Which artery is more superior, the renal or gonadal artery?

The renal artery

37

A what level does the inferior vena cava begin?

around L5

38

The inferior vena cava returns blood to the heart from where? (5 things)

Lower limbs, most of the back, abdominal wall, and abdominopelvic viscera

39

The portal vein is formed by what?

the union of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins

40

The portal vein drains what?

the spleen, pancreas, gall bladder, abdominal GI tract

41

Portal-caval anastomoses:
gastric vein &

esophageal vein

42

Portal-caval anastomoses:
paraumbilical vein &

epigastric vein

43

Portal-caval anastomoses:
superior rectal vein &

middle/inferior rectal vein

44

Portal-caval anastomoses:
colic vein &

retroperitoneal vein

45

T/F the portal venous system doesn't have valves?

true

46

The portal-caval anastomoses- clinical notes:
because of portal hypertensions, which restricts blood flow, the caval veins can become engorged, possibly dilated and varicose

yep

47

The portal-caval anastomoses- clinical notes:
dilated infra & mid. rectal veins produce hemorrhoids that can lead to vascualr rupture and severe hemorrhaging

also good to know

48

Innervation to the viscera of the abdomen is via what?

the autonomic nerve plexus

49

Where do sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for the abdomen originate from?

Sympathetic- from T5-L2 (thoracolumbar)
Parasympathetic- from CN X and S2-4 (craniosacral)

50

Preganglionic splanchnic nerves synapse where?

You know this is going to be a test question.
The answer is in the collateral ganglia

51

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the ganglia to reach the effector organs. How do the post synaptic fibers travel?

They travel on all the main arterial branches

52

Where do parasympathetic preganglionic nerves from CN X travel?

on upper arterial branches (celiac trunk, SMA, renal)

53

Where do preganglionic nerves from S2-4 travel?

on the lower arterial branches (IMA and branches)

54

Where do synapses of the parasympathetics occur?

within the effector organ

55

What are the 4 major autonomic ganglia and plexuses of the abdomen?

1. Celiac ganglion
2. Superior mesenteric ganglion
3. Aorticorenal ganglion
4. Inferior mesenteric ganglion

56

The 4 major ganglia receive nerve inputs from where?

The inferior mesenteric ganglion receives lumbar splanchnic nerve and S2-4 branches
All the rest receive thoracic splanchnic nerves and CN X branches