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Flashcards in Urinary System Histology Deck (52):
1

Which kidney is more superiorly oriented?

The left kidney

2

Kidneys do what?
(3 things)

1. Filter blood to keep it pure
2. Disposal of nitrogenous waste
3. Regulate water and electrolyte balance, acids and bases

3

The outer layer of the kidney capsule is made primarily of what?

Collagen and fibroblasts

4

The renal cortex is composed of what?

Renal corpuscles and associated tubules

5

The renal medulla is composed of what?

straight tubules, collecting ducts and vasa recta

6

A renal lobe consists of what?

Think ice cream cone:
A renal pyramid
Its overlying cortex
One half of each of the adjacent renal columns

7

Know the flow of blood through the kidney.

See slides 10 and 11 of this histo lecture

8

During filtration, what happens?

Fluid is squeezed out of the glomerular capillary bed

9

What happens during resorption?

Most nutrients, water and essential ions are returned to the blood of the peritubular capillaries

10

What happens during secretion?

Secretion moves additional undesirable molecules into the tubule from the blood of peritubular capillaries

11

What is the structural and functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron

12

What are the two parts of the nephron?

The renal corpuscle
The renal tubule

13

What happens in the renal tubule?

This is where tubular reabsorption and secretion occurs

14

Each nephron drains into where?

A collecting tubule/duct

15

The nephron plus its collecting tubule is called what?

The uriniferous tubule

16

T/F- medullary rays are named for their destination instead of their location.

True

17

What are the two components of the renal corpuscle?

The glomerulus (capillaries)
Bowmans capsule (a double walled cup enclosing the glomerulus)

18

T/F bowman's capsule has two layers- the visceral or external layer and the parietal or internal layer?

False- it does have two layers, but the visceral layer is the internal layer and the parietal layer is the external layer

19

What is the vascular pole of a renal corpuscle?

It is where afferent and efferent arterioles enter and exit

20

What is the urinary/tubular pole of a renal corpuscle?

It is where filtrate exits bowman's space and enters the proximal convoluted tube

21

What are the simple squamous epithelial cells that come in contact with glomerular capillaries?

Podocytes

22

What are pedicels?

They are extensions of podocytes

23

What is the space between two pedicels?

A filtration slit

24

What is the semipermeable membrane that covers the filtration slit?

Slit diaphragm

25

Can RBCs pass through the slit diaphragm? Why/ why not?

Nope, they're too big

26

The parietal layer of bowman's capsule is made up of what kind of cells?

Simple squamous epithelium

27

The renal tubule consists of what three things?

1. Proximal convoluted tubule
2. Loop of Helne
3. Distal convoluted tube
(ultimately goes from the DCT to a collecting duct and then to the bladder)

28

Which part of the renal tubule extends into the renal medulla?

The Loop of Henle

29

The thin descending limb is highly permeable to what?

Water

30

The thin ascending limb is highly permeable to what?

Sodium
Chloride

31

The proximal convoluted tubule is confined to what?

The renal cortex

32

The PCT has a brush border made of what?

Long microvilli

33

The thick descending limb of the loop of Henle is made of what kind of cells?

Simple cuboidal epithelial

34

T thin descending limb of the loop of Henle is made of what kind of cells?

Simple squamous epithelial

35

The thin ascending limb of the loop of Henle is made of what kind of cells?

Simple squamous epithelial

36

The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is made of what kind of cells?

Simple cuboidal epithelial

37

Does the DCT have a brush border?

Nope

38

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

It is the structure where the afferent arteriole makes contact with the ascending limb of the loop of Henle

39

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus composed of?

Macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells

40

The collecting ducts do what?

Collect urine from the DCT

41

The collecting ducts are lined with what?

Simple cuboidal epithelium

42

How are collecting duct cells differentiated from loop of Henle cells?

They are very crisp-very distinct borders- very differentiated from one another- larger lumen than everything else

43

What is the path of urine through the kidneys to the urethra?

Collecting tubules--collecting ducts--papillary ducts (ducts of Bellin)--minor calyx--major calyx--renal pelvis --ureter--urinary bladder--urethra

44

What are some more characteristics of collecting duct histology?

Clear cytoplasm and defined/distinct cell membranes

45

What are the four layers of the walls of the calyces, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder?

Mucosa (has transitional epithelium)
Submucosa
Muscularis (has smooth muscle)
Adventitia

46

How is urine moved through the ureter?

Peristalsis of the smooth muscle

47

How long is a ureter?

10-12 inches

48

What is the capacity of the urinary bladder?

about 250 ml

49

What type of cells make up the prostatic urethra?

urothelium

50

What type of cells make up the membranous urethra?

stratified columnar epithelium & pseudostratified columnar
epithelium

51

What type of cells make up the spongy urethra?

stratified columnar & pseudostratified columnar

52

In females, what type of cells make up the prostatic urethra?

initially urothelium and then stratified squamous epithelium