Histology 5th LE Flashcards Preview

ANATOMY > Histology 5th LE > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology 5th LE Deck (113):
1

Seminiferous tubules

Stratified cuboidal epithelium resting on the basement membrane

Spermatogonia - spherical nuclei, immediately adjacent to basement membrane

Primary spermatocyte

Spermatids

Sertoli cells (in between cuboidal cells, triangular, blood testis barrier)

Leydig cells - acidophillic, produce testosterone, in between the tubules in the interstital space

2

Organ: Pancreas

Islets of Langerhans

Cells of the Pancreas:

-Alpha: glucagon

-Beta: Insulin

-Delta: Somatostatin

-F/PP Cells: Pancreatic Polypeptide

 

3

Organ: Pancreas

Islets of Langerhans

Cells of the Pancreas:

-Alpha: glucagon

-Beta: Insulin

-Delta: Somatostatin

-F/PP Cells: Pancreatic Polypeptide

4

Organ: Thymus

Hassal's Corupuscle

Endocrine function: Thymopoeitin (for lymphocyte development)

5

Organ: Thymus

Hassal's Corupuscle

Endocrine function: Thymopoeitin (for lymphocyte development)

*notice the lobated areas

6

Organ: Thymus

Hassal's Corupuscle

Endocrine function: Thymopoeitin (for lymphocyte development)

*notice the medullary area which is pale-staining

7

Organ: Thymus

Hassal's Corupuscle

Endocrine function: Thymopoeitin (for lymphocyte development)

8

Organ: Parathyroid Gland

Principal cells and oxyphil cells

*Notice that the slide is pale-staining

 

9

Organ: Parathyroid Gland

10

Parathyroid gland

11

Parathyroid gland

12

Organ: Pituitary Gland

Left side is pale staining: Pars nervosa (Posterior Lobe); whitish in appearance due to predominance of nerve fibers; small cells are pituicytes

Right side is darker staining: Anterior Lobe; note acidophillic cells, basophillic cells, and chromophobes

Middle part: Pars intermedia

Cells of the Anterior Pituitary:

-Acidophils: more numerous, smalle, secrete less hormones (GH, Somatotropin, Prolactin)

-Basophils: less in number, bigger, secrete more hormones (LH, FSH, ACTH, B-LPH, MSH, TSH)

-Chromophobes: Do not stain, with central nucleus, non-functional

13

Organ: Pituitary gland, Anterior Lobe

Cells of the Anterior Pituitary:

-Acidophils: more numerous, smaller, secrete less hormones (GH, Somatotropin, Prolactin)[pampalaki ng bata at ng boobs]

-Basophils: less in number, bigger, secrete more hormones (LH, FSH, ACTH, B-LPH, MSH, TSH) [Stimulating hormones]

-Chromophobes: Do not stain, with central nucleus, non-functional

14

Cells of the Anterior Pituitary:

-Acidophils: more numerous, smalle, secrete less hormones (GH, Somatotropin, Prolactin)

-Basophils: less in number, bigger, secrete more hormones (LH, FSH, ACTH, B-LPH, MSH, TSH)

-Chromophobes: Do not stain, with central nucleus, non-functional

15

Cells of the Anterior Pituitary:

-Acidophils: more numerous, smalle, secrete less hormones (GH, Somatotropin, Prolactin)

-Basophils: less in number, bigger, secrete more hormones (LH, FSH, ACTH, B-LPH, MSH, TSH)

-Chromophobes: Do not stain, with central nucleus, non-functional

16

Organ: Pituitary Gland

17

Cells of the anterior pituitary

Pinker cells: Acidophils

Bluer cells: Basophils

Non-staining: Chromophobes

18

Cells of the anterior pituitary

Light pink cells: Acidophils

Darker pink cells: Basophils

Non-staining: Chromophobes

19

Organ: Thyroid Gland with thyroid follicles

Secretions are inside the thyroid follicle. Follicles are filled with colloid.

Lining of thyroid follicles:

-Normal: simple cuboidal epithelium

-Hypoactive: simple squamois

-Very active: simple columnar epithelium

 

Cell types:

-Parafollicular/clear/C cells: on the basal lamina or between follicles, secrete Calcitonin

-Follicular epithelial/Principal/F cells: secrete T3 or T4, smaller and darker staining

 

20

Organ: Thyroid Gland with thyroid follicles

Secretions are inside the thyroid follicle. Follicles are filled with colloid.

Lining of thyroid follicles: 

-Normal: simple cuboidal epithelium

-Hypoactive: simple squamois

-Very active: simple columnar epithelium

 

Cell types:

-Parafollicular/clear/C cells: on the basal lamina or between follicles, secrete Calcitonin

-Follicular epithelial/Principal/F cells: secrete T3 or T4, smaller and darker staining

21

Organ: Thyroid Gland with thyroid follicles

Secretions are inside the thyroid follicle. Follicles are filled with colloid.

Pointed structure: Clear cells/C cells/Parafollicular cells

 

Cell types:

-Parafollicular/clear/C cells: on the basal lamina or between follicles, secrete Calcitonin

-Follicular epithelial/Principal/F cells: secrete T3 or T4, smaller and darker staining

22

Organ: Thyroid Gland with thyroid follicles

Red Arrow: Follicular cells

Blue arrow: Parafollicular cells

Cell types:

-Parafollicular/clear/C cells: on the basal lamina or between follicles, secrete Calcitonin

-Follicular epithelial/Principal/F cells: secrete T3 or T4, smaller and darker staining

23

Organ: Thyroid Gland with thyroid follicles

Notice the more flattened epithelium; Hypoactive thyroid gland

Lining of thyroid follicles: 

-Normal: simple cuboidal epithelium

-Hypoactive: simple squamois

-Very active: simple columnar epithelium

24

Organ: Thyroid Gland with thyroid follicles

Pointed Structure: Simple cuboidal epithelium; normal thyroid

 

25

Organ: Adrenal Gland

Cortex: Lighter area surrounding darker area

Medulla: Located at the center, containing spaces for blood vessels

Layers of the cortex:

  • Zona glomerulosa: arched cords, outermost layer, mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  • zona fasciculata: straight cords, glucocorticoids
  • zona reticulars: irregular cords, androgens (DHEA)

26

Organ: Adrenal Gland

Cortex: Lighter area surrounding darker area

Medulla: derived from neural crest cells; secretes catecholamines via chromaffin cells

Layers of the cortex:

  • Zona glomerulosa: arched cords, outermost layer, mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) [target organs are the kidneys]
  • zona fasciculata: straight cords, glucocorticoids
  • zona reticulars: irregular cords, androgens (DHEA)

27

Organ: Adrenal Gland, cortex

Layers of the cortex:

  • Zona glomerulosa: arched cords, outermost layer, mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  • zona fasciculata: straight cords, glucocorticoids
  • zona reticulars: irregular cords, androgens (DHEA)

28

Organ: Adrenal Gland

Layers of the cortex:

Zona glomerulosa: arched cords, outermost layer, mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
zona fasciculata: straight cords, glucocorticoids
zona reticulars: irregular cords, androgens (DHEA)

29

Organ: Adrenal Gland

Layers of the cortex:

  • Zona glomerulosa: arched cords, outermost layer, mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  • zona fasciculata: straight cords, glucocorticoids
  • zona reticulars: irregular cords, androgens (DHEA)

30

Adrenal gland

Zona reticularis: Irregular cords, secreting androgens (DHEA)

31

Adrenal Medulla

Pale-staining chromaffin cells

Secretes cathecholamines (epi, norepi)

 

32

Adrenal Medulla

Embryology: neural crest cells

Pale-staining chromaffin cells

Secretes cathecholamines (epi, norepi)

Note fish-eye appearance of nerve cells

33

Name the organ

Adrenal gland

34

Identify the organ

Pituitary gland

35

Identify organ and significant parts

Kidney with glomerolus

Note DCT, PCT, Collecting Tubule

Endocrine Part: JG Cells

36

JG Cell: renin and erythropoietin

37

Identify the organ

Placenta with mature chorionic villi

Note cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast

38

Identify and describe significant structures

Chorionic villi

Syncitiotrophoblast: at the sides, secreting hCG

Cytotrophoblast: centrally located

39

Chorionic villi

Syncitiotrophoblast: at the sides, secreting hCG

Cytotrophoblast: centrally located

40

Identify organ

Organ: Placenta with chorionic villi

41

Placenta with chorionic villi

Note syncitiotrophoblast, and cytotrophoblast

42

Placenta with chorionic villi

Note syncitiotrophoblast, and cytotrophoblast

43

Identify organ

Organ: Vagina 

44

Identify organ and lining epithelium

Organ: Vagina

Lining: Stratified Squamous epithelium non-keratinized

45

Identify organ and epithelium

Organ: Vagina

Lining: Stratified Squamous epithelium non-keratinized (wet type; the vagina should be wet)

46

Organ: Vagina

Lining: Stratified Squamous epithelium non-keratinized (wet type; the vagina should be wet)

47

Identify organ and epithelium

Organ: Cervix

Significant structure: Squamo-columnar junction

Endocervix and exocervix

Simple columnar epithelium-stratified squamous epithelium (wet type)

Note endocervical glands

48

Organ: Cervix

Significant structure: Squamo-columnar junction

Endocervix and exocervix

Simple columnar epithelium-stratified squamous epithelium (wet type)

With endocervical glands

49

Organ: Cervix

Significant structure: Squamo-columnar junction

Endocervix and exocervix

Simple columnar epithelium-stratified squamous epithelium (wet type)

With endocervical glands

50

Organ: Cervix

Significant structure: Squamo-columnar junction

Endocervix and exocervix

Transition zone: Simple columnar epithelium-stratified squamous epithelium (wet type)

With endocervical glands

51

Transition zone: simple columnar becoming stratified squamous epithelium

Take note of the cervical glands

52

Identify organ

Organ: Vagina

Absence of cervical glands

53

Identify organ

Organ: uterus

Notice the bundles of smooth muscles and the glandular area

Endometrium (upper half of the slide): Functional and Basal Layer

Myometrium (lower half of the slide)

54

Uterus, Endometrium

Functional Layer: supplied by spiral artery

Basal Layer: supplied by straight artery

55

Uterus

Endometrium

-Functional layer: spiral artery

-Basal layer: straight artery

Myometrium

smooth muscle layer

56

Endometrium

Layers:

Functional layer

Basal Layer

57

Identify structures

Endometrial glands

Lining of glands: Simple columnar epithelium

58

Fallopian Tube

*with infoldings of mucosa lined by simple columnar epithelium

*note circular muscle surrounding the infoldings, with slips of smooth muscles

59

Fallopian Tube

*with infoldings of mucosa lined by simple columnar epithelium

*note circular muscle surrounding the infoldings, with slips of smooth muscles

60

Identify Organ

Fallopian tube

Note the many mucosal infoldings and simple columnar epithelium lining

61

Fallopian tube

Pointed structure: Peg cells

62

Fallopian tube

Pointed structure: Peg cells in between columnar cells

Function of peg cells: secrete fluid for nourishing spermatozoa, oocyte, and zygote

63

Identify organ:

Organ: Ovary

Note follicles of different stages of development.

-Primordial ovarian follicle: primary oocute surrounded by single layer of flattened follicular cells

-Unilaminar primary ovarian follicle: simple cuboidal epithelium

-Multilamina primary ovarian follicle: stratified cuboidal epithelium

-Antral/Secondary/Vesicular ovarian follicle: with antrum and zona pellucida, theca interna/externa

-Graafian/Mature ovarian follicle: granulosa cells, corona radiata

64

Identify pointed structure and stage of development

Secondary ovarian follicle with antrum, corona radiata, granulosa later, theca interna, and theca externa

65

Find the primordial ovarian follicle and identify epithelial lining

Primordial ovarian follicle are the smallest follicles lined with simple squamous epithelium

66

Corpus Luteum

Referrence: Ovarian follicles

67

Corpus Luteum

Referrence: Ovarian follicle

68

Corpus Luteum

Note Syncitiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast

69

Corpus Luteum

70

Identify the organ

Organ: Prostate

Large space: Corpora amylacea

*Fibromuscular part

71

Organ: Prostate

with corpora amylacea: colloidal material in circular structures

largest part of this slide: fibromuscular tissue

72

Prostate gland with:

-fibromuscular part

-glandular part

-colloidal structures (corpora amylacea)

 

73

Prostate gland

74

Prostate gland

75

Organ: Testes

Characteristic feature: Seminiferous tubules

Outer covering: Tunica albuginea, simple squamous

76

Identify bracketed area

Orange brackets: Seminiferous tubules

Yellow bracket: Leydig cells

77

identify pointed structures

Orange pointer: spermatocyte

Blue pointer: primary spermatocyte

green pointer: spermatid

Black pointer: Sertoli cells

Yellow: Leydig cells

78

Identify bracketed area

Tunica albuginea

79

Identify pointed structure:

Sertoli cells, resting on the basement membrane

80

Sertoli cells

81

Rete Testes

82

Rete testes

83

Identify characteristic structures

Ductus efferentes(scalloping structures) with epidydimis (pseudostratified columnar epithelium with sterocilia)

84

Ductus efferentes(scalloping structures) with epidydimis (pseudostratified columnar epithelium with sterocilia)

85

Ductus efferentes(scalloping structures) with epidydimis (pseudostratified columnar epithelium with sterocilia)

86

Ductus efferentes(scalloping structures) with epidydimis (pseudostratified columnar epithelium with sterocilia)

87

Ductus efferentes with characteristic scallops

88

Identify whole structure

Spermatic cord

*big circular structure: vas deferens

notice the veins and arteries and pampiniform plexus

89

Ductus efferentes

90

Epididymis 

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with sterocilia

91

Identify organ

Epididymis

with spermatozoa inside the structures

92

Epididymis with spermatozoa inside

93

Identify structures within the spermatic cord

Vas deferens is the largest structure on lower left

Upper right: testicular artery

Upper left: testicular vein

94

Spermatic cord and contents of the spermatic cord:

vas deferens, testicular artery, testicular vein, pampiniform plexus

95

96

Ves deferens

Very muscular covering

97

Vas deferens

98

Seminal vesicle

Notice the many infoldings of the mucosa, with simple columnar epithelium

99

Seminal vesicle

100

Identify organ and characteristic structures

Penis with corpora cavernosa, corpus spongiosum, and penile urethrea

Ischiocavernosus ms.: surrounding cavernosa

Bulbospongiosus ms.: surrounding corpus spongiosus

*Review coverings and abdominal continuation of layers of penis and scrotum

101

Pituitary gland

102

Identify the organ

Ovary

103

Identify the organ

Pituitary gland

104

Thyroid

105

Thyroid

106

Identify organ and layers

Adrenal gland, cortex

Zona glomerulosa

zona fasciculata

Zona reticularis

107

Placenta (mature/imature?)

108

Organ: Uterus

Functional and basal layer of endometrium

109

Identify structures

Endometrial glands

110

Fallopian tube

111

Spermatic cord

112

Identify pointed cell

Acidophil

113

Testes with tunica albuginea