Histology of the Kidney Flashcards Preview

Renal and Urology > Histology of the Kidney > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of the Kidney Deck (20):

What covers the kidney

a capsule of strong collagen fibres


What is the hilum

the site of entry of renal artery and exit of renal vein and ureter


What makes up a nephron

renal corpuscle and renal tubules


What separates the blood from the glomerular filtrate

capillary endothelium
basal lamina


What lines the thin limb of the loop of henle

simple squamous epithelium with nuclei protruding into the lumen


What lines the thick ascending limb

simple cuboidal epithelium with lots of mitochondria


Describe the convoluted tubule epithelium

The distal convoluted tubules are found in the cortex and are lined by simple cuboidal epithelium, however unlike the proximal convoluted tubules, those of the DCT lack a brush border of extensive microvilli


What are the medullary rays

In the cortex, the collecting ducts, along with the straight segments of the proximal and distal tubules are gathered together in parallel bundles running perpendicular to the surface of the kidney and called medullary rays


What is the lining of the collecting duct

simple columnar epithelium


What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus

the macula densa
the juxtaglomerular cells
the extraglomerular mesangial cells


What is the macula densa

On the side of the distal convoluted tubule nearest the afferent arteriole the cells of the DCT are taller, crowded together and the nuclei are intensely stained. Believed to function in sensing ion composition in the DCT.


What are the juxtaglomerular cells

Juxtaglomerular cells: Modified smooth muscle cells in wall of the afferent arteriole. These cells contain/secrete renin.


What are the extraglomerular cells

): Modified mesangial cells extending outside of the renal corpuscle. Their exact function is unknown.


What lines the conducting parts of the urinary tract

transitional epithelium or urothelium


What are the cells at the luminal surface of urothelium called

umbrella cells


Describe the histology of the ureter

transitional epithelium - lamina propria -smooth muscle (muscularis external)


What lines the urethra in females

initialy transitional epithelium which transition to stratified squamous near its termination


What are the parts of the male urethra

membranous (from prostate to bulb of penis)
Penile urethra


Where does the epithelium in the male urethra change from transitional

at the membranous urethra
changes to statified columar
which at the tip of the penis becomes stratified squamous


Describe the histology of the prostate

tubulo-alveolar glands lined typically by simple columnar secretory epithelium and with a fibromuscular stroma. Its secretions make up about half the seminal fluid volume