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Flashcards in History Deck (27):
1

roles of equus in human history

hunted, domesticated, spiritual symbol, warfare, work, trade, transport, wealth and status, sport, entertainment, companions

2

hunted:

food source before domestication
-evidence found in caves and other prehistoric sites in ice age europe

3

domestication

-est. 5-6000 years ago (dogs 15000)
-DNA diversity in domestic and wild horses suggests a large number of mares were domesticated, but only a few stallinos were selected, shown in bottleneck of y chromosomes
-first domesticated in Kraznyl Yar, northern Kazakhstan: evidence of horse manure roofs, leather horse tack, and ceramics with horse milk fat

4

koumiss

fermented mares milk

5

Sakha:

'people of the horse'
-horse herders, used them for food, clothing, transport, symbols of fertility and wealth

6

spiritual symbols

-common cave engravings of horses
-religious ceremonies
-rites of passage
-seen as guides to spirit world

7

pech merle cave france

13-16000 bc
-cave painting of spotted horse, genetics indicate same as current spotted horses

8

unicorn

symbol of christ and sensuous feelings

9

kiowa and horses

-painted horses were prized
-part of family
-allowed their culture to expand
-seen as "sacred dogs"

10

warfare

-horses changed the balance of power between civilizations
-chariots, horse-back, transport
-used up until 1900s
-nobles and knights rode on horseback, a symbol of bravery and nobility

11

knights and king henry VIII

decreed every major landowner must keep at least 2 mares to keep up horse population
-1541 banning of stallions from grazing on public land unless height requirements were met, allowing only strongest to be bred

12

spanish conquistadors

168 spanish soldiers, 62 on horseback, attacked on inca emperor, who was surrounded by 80,000 inca soldiers
-charged into crowd and killed 7000 incas and eventually the emperor
-eventually natives acquired horses in Chile, argentina, and US great plains
-used their horses to fight off european invaders, thus reintroduced Equus to America

13

grey horses

often used in paintings to most important figure would stand out

14

General Robert Lee and Traveller

-bought Traveller for 200 dollars in 1862
-rode and doted on the horse, moved to washington with the horse
-bones kept at U of Wash until 1970 where they were moved and buried with owner

15

WW1

cavalry offensives used in early part of war
-trench warfare, barb-wire made harder to use horses
-horses ended up used mostly for transport

16

modern horse soldiers

war in afghanistan 2001/2 U.S. special forces rode horses with Northern Alliance in areas where rugged terrain and lack of fuel made cars impractical

17

work, trade, and transport

pionneers relied heavily on horses

18

Pit Ponies

70,000 shetland ponies worked underground in UK

19

Coaches

horses used to transport people and cargo on wagons and coaches, even as taxis in New York

20

City Horse Facts

1870s- more than 300 US matents issued for horse-powered machinery
1900-130,000 horses worked in manhattan, more horses back then than taxi cars in new york today
-1916-in chicago more than 9000 horse carcasses carted away

21

second stage of cruelty

coachman beating fallen horse, 1751
-1824 society for prevention of cruelty to animals created to prevent abuse to carriage horses
-1866 ASPCA formed in NY city to protect horses

22

wealth and status

-associated with high status in europe: gentlemen, chevalier, caballero, and cavalier
-"come off it" and "get off your high horse" come from superior attitude of knights looking down on others

23

sport

racing: began in england 300 years ago
-'sport of kings' originally royalty bred horses only
-thoroughbred used for galloping; descended from arabian breed

24

racing phrases

-jockey sure of winning, lowers hands on the reins="hands down"
-racehorse unfamiliar to racing fans is "dark horse"
-part of course between last turn and finish="homestretch"
-racing fan with inside tip on likely winner="straight from horse's mouth"

25

hunting

-europe, asia, mideast, hunting as pastime
-middle ages young noble men learn skills like tracking and shooting while on horseback
-used other animals like hounds, hawks, and even big cats

26

horse quotes

the wind of heaven is that which blows between a horse's ears=arabian proverb
-horse is a thing of beauty...none will tire of looking at him as long as he displays himself in splendor-greek historian Xenophon
release the old horses and follow them, and thereby reach the right road-Guan Zhong, chinese politician and scholar

27

Donkeys;

beasts of burden and companionship
-shown as carrying virgin and swaddled christ