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Flashcards in Natural History Deck (22):
1

female=
male=
castrated male=
young male/female=
group=

mare
stallion
gelding
foal (m=colt, f=filly)
herd

2

height measured in

"hands"
pony less than 14.2 hands,
largest horse is clydesdale at 17-18 hands

3

breed types

pony, clydesdale, quarterhorse, przewalski, shetland pony

4

speed

88km/hr, average 72 km/hr

5

life expectancy

20 years in wild (based on przewalski), and 25-30 in captivity

6

reproductive cycle

seasonally polyestrous; mate and foal in late sprind/midsummer when daylight is long
-unlikely to breed past 20

7

northern breeds

cold bloods/trotters/drafts are heavier built, deep bodies, short legs, small ears, large heads, thick coats
breeds adaptive for energy conservation in cold climates:shetland pony, haflinger, clydesdale

8

southern breeds

aka hotbloods/hallopers
-long slender legs, fine coats, smaller heads and larger ears
-fast, highly reactice and enduring
-adapted to aid heat dissipation?
ie. persian/arabian, thoroughbreds
warmbloods are mix of hot(south) and cold (north)

9

environment

open plains or mountains but can adapt
-ie marshlands to woodlands
-loyal to undefended home ranges and make use of core areas

10

diet

preferential grazers but can browse on forbs, sedges, shrubs, and tress
diets may change seasonally
-feral and free-range eat up to 6 hours per day (60-70% of day)

11

defecation behaviour

-differs btw confined and free-range
-captive: latrine and grazing areas for parasite avoidance
-free: defecate indiscriminately, except for marking behaviour
-latrine behaviour appears due to domestication and selection for this behaviour in high density

12

social organizations

1. domestic donkey, zebra, and wild ass
2. domestic/wild horse, and mountain zebra

13

domestic donkey, grevy's zebran, and wild ass social organization

-territorial males
-adult do not form lasting bonds
-females range over territory of several males while accepting mates
-sub-adult males disperse to join/form roaming bachelor groups
-adaption to predictable but marginal desert conditions?

14

domestic/przewalski horse, mountain zebra social

stable, long lasting non-territorial family band
-subadult males leave to join/form bachelor groups
-subadult females join/form new harems
-adaption to UNpredictable envrionment and changing but constant food supply may prompt migration

15

flexible behaviour

ferals of shalkeford banks, North carolina show BOTH social organizations
-half island access to limited resources is important that population adopted territoriality
-half not limited in resources so not territorial

16

stable family bands

band=group with stable adult membership and pre-dispersal offspring
2-30 members
members: 1 to several unrelated adult mares, 1-a few stallions and immatures offsprings 1-3 years old
-bands may temporarily group with other bands, esp in winter when predation risk increases

17

multiple stallion bands

1-5 stallions
may have negative consequences to mare like greater parasite load, poorer body condition, reduced fecundity due to stallion harassment
mare may however solicit more than one stallion

18

social behaviour: dyadic bonds

adults form dyadic bonds (mare-mare, stallion-mare, etc): spacial proximity and reciprocal positive interactions like grooming

19

dominance hierarchies

stable and linear, though sometimes they reverse or form triangles
-once established they are maintained
-may provide priority access to food and breeding
-stallions not always highest rank
social behaviour minimizes conflict and keeps group stable
being in groups reduces predation

20

agonistic behaviour

less frequent than friendly behaviour
-serious injuries are rare
-most common aggressions are low intensity displacements (15%), threats to bite (41%), and threats to kick (20%)
-rank associtaed with age, longevity in band, and body weight
-high ranked males more involved in agnoistic behaviour, but not often the recipient, foals the least involved
-foal rank order before and after weaming positively correlated with rank order of dams

21

foals and social development

long term relationship with dam
-before and after birth mare separates from group, bond formed with foal
-2-3 weeks will start interacting with other foals
6 months 40% time with dams
-weaning occurs before birth of next foal (approx 7 months) but maintains close relationship
-social interactions with others are critical for social development of foals

22

dispersal of young adults

at sexual maturity; 2-3 years old
-males form bachelor groups 1-15 males, sometimes under older stallions
-home ranges of bands and bach males overlap
-groups are not stable associations
aquires females at 5-6 years old
females are 1 and 2 year old mares dispersing from natal bands
-mares disperse non-randomly, join harmes with at least 2 other mares
-prefer familiar females but not males, avoiding relate males to keep inbreeding low
-no costs to leaving for mares