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Flashcards in Measuring Behaviour Deck (20):
1

approaches: psychology vs. ethology

psych=focus on how behaviour works and how it develops
-usually done in a LAB
ethology=focus on what behaviour is for and why it evolved
-field setting

2

What to consider in a study

-species
-setting
-behaviours feasible in the setting
-time of day
-how presence of observer will affect animal
-ethical considerations
-group vs. individuals
-events vs. states

3

how to begin measuring behaviour

-ask a question
-make prelimiary observations
-identify behavioural variables need to be measured
-formulate hypothesis
-chose suitable recording methods
-collect and analyze data
-interpret results
-consider alternate interpretations, recognize limitations

4

types of measures

lactency
frequency
duration

5

latency

time from some specified event to the onset of the first occurrence of the behaviour

6

frequency

-total # of occurrences of behaviour pattern per unit time

7

duration

length of time which a single occurrence of behaviour lasts

8

events

behavioural patterns of short duration that happen as points in time
-ie. vocalizations, ear twitch

9

states

behavioural patterns of long duration where durations are mearsured
-ie. proximity to others, postures, feeding

10

individuals vs. groups

can you consistently identify individuals in the group?
how would you define the group?

11

recording methods

ad libitum sampling
focal sampling
scan sampling

12

ad libitum sampling

write down whatever is visible or seems relevant

13

focal sampling

observe ONE individual for a specified tiem and record all instances of behaviour

14

scan sampling

group is scanned on 'censured' at regular intervals and behaviours of individuals recorded

15

data collection methods

continuous/all-occurrence recording
or time sampling

16

continuous/all-occurrence recording

measures true frequencies and durations of behaviour patterns

17

time sampling

instantaneous sampling (scan or fixed-interval point time, at a certain time record observed behaviours)
one-zero sampling-at end of time interval record whether behaviour occured or not

18

time sampling: choosing sample interval

-how many categories of behavior are being recorded?
-shorter time interval MORE ACCURATE representation of behaviour (only if measure d properly) ie. 30 sec more accurate than 2 min.
-trial and error: need to make sure provide true record of total time

19

designing data sheet

choose behaviours measured to get time budget
-method of data collection

20

reliability

-observer reliability/consistency: single observer obtains results when measuring same thing on diff occasions
-between two or more observers reliability