Infectious disease and vaccinations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infectious disease and vaccinations Deck (19):

core vaccine diseases

-west nile virus
-eastern equine encephalitis


optional vaccinated diseases

-equine influenza, equine herpesvirus, stragnles, potomac horse fever, botulism, equine viral arteritis


epidemiologic triad

-spreading disease requires 1. susceptible hosts 2. infective agent 3. supportive environment


risk factors of vaccination

-exposure to other horses
-in and out traffic


geography, horses, and vaccines

-horses in rural areas with little contact with other horses have little risk of exposure to agents
-if exposed, however, can show severe signs because of no previous contact and thus reduced immunity


broodmares, pregnancy, and vaccines

-HIGH RISK: agents can kill fetus, damage placenta, cause hyperthermia, and result in abortions
-ie. herpes can become active and cause abortion STORMS amongst herds
-vaccines AND mares must be separated
-recommend core and optional vaccines like influenza, equine herpesvirus and strangles


age, foals

-passive immunity from mare's colostrum provides most of foal's antibodies for first 9-12 weeks
-foals produce own antibodies, but not enough for first 2 months
-recommend vaccinate mare 4-6 weeks BEFORE foaling, and foal at 6 months; if mare not vaccinated, foal at 3 months


in and out traffic

-barns with many horses lead to high exposure rates
-horses attending competitions and travelling have high risk of exposure and stress that can reduce immunity
-recommend core + vaccines for influenza, equine herpesvirus, and strangles


rabies virus

causes fatal disease in mammals
-virus shed in saliva and transmitted inbites
-approx 1 case each year past 3 years


rabies hosts in NA

skunks, fox, raccoon, coyote,
bat most common case, only reservoir of rabies in BC


rabies symptoms

rapidly progressive but preventable with vaccines
-symptoms develop in 10 days
-furious, dumb, paralytic, consider all neurological cases potentially rabies
-rabies vaccines are licensed and must be used by veterinarian


livestock exposed to rabies must be revaccinated in...

45 days; unvaccinated are to be slaughtered immediately or kept under watch for 6 months



aka lockjaw, often fatal and caused by clostridium tetani
-spores present in soil and contaminate wounds and umbillici of foals
-C. tetani produces neurotoxin causing muscle spasms
-vaccine neutrilizes toxin


west nile virus

-spread by moquitoes and cause encephalitis (inflammation of brain)
-low mortality and sickness in horses
-fatal in 30% of horses showing neuro signs
-40% of survivors have residual neuro deficits for months or even permanent disability
-severe cases may have ataxia, weakness of hind limbs, recumbency, muscle fasciculations, fever


west nile treatment

supportive care, slings, fluids, anti-inflammatories
-vaccination prior to mosquito season


eastern equine encephalitis

-virus spread by mosquitoes that feed on birds
-immediately notify in canada
-occurs in eastern canada
-NOT zoonotic
80-90% of horses get lethal neurological disease
rapid progression in 24 hours-10 days: fever, mania propulsive walking hyperesthesia aggression, recumbency and death
NO TREATMENT only prevention
-vaccine covers both EEE and WEE


optional vaccines

diseases that have
-variable impact on health of horses
-low risk of life-threatening
-vaccine is not great at prevention
-occur in a specific region
-vaccines increase risk, ie. botulism


equine influenza

acute, contagious, resp disease
-unique ability to mutate rapidly and spread between species
-high infection rate but low mortality in horses
-incubation of 2-3 days
-sudden onset and rapid spread


influenza vaccine

-does not always prevent influenza
-most susceptible between aages 1-5
-vaccinate pregant mares 4-6 weeks prior to foaling
-must revaccinate at 6 weeks, 6 month intervals
clinical signs: fever, dry cough, nasal discharge