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Flashcards in History And Approaches Deck (43):
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Behaviorism

The view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes

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Behavioral Psychology

The scientific study of observable behavior and it's explanation by principles of learning

2

Nature vs. Nurture controversy

Long withstanding controversy over relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

3

Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

4

Cognitive Psychology

The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

5

Natural Selection

The principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival most likely be passed onto succeeding generations

6

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis

7

Structuralism

An early school in psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

*introspection: the examination or observation of ones own mental and emotional processes

8

Human factors psychology

The study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

9

Social-cultural psychology

The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

10

Applied research

A form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science

11

Humanistic Psychology

Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals' potential for personal growth. Love, acceptance, and belonging

12

Dorothea Dix

An American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums

13

Biopsychosocial Approach

An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

14

Developmental Psychology

The scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout a lifespan

15

Charles Darwin

English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to the evolutionary theory of natural selection

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Basic Research

Research arising out of curiosity

17

B.F. Skinner

American Psychologist and professor at Harvard who was mostly known for his "Skinners Box" experiments that studied animal behavior with reinforcements

18

John B Watson

American Psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism

19

Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology

The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

20

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the roots and of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

21

Mary Whiton Calkins

An American psychologist who was the first woman to become of the American Psychological Association (APA)

22

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (ex: drugs) treatment as well as therapy

23

Counseling Psychology

A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving a greater well being

24

Biological Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies the links between biological ( including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological sciences

25

Ivan Pavlov

Russian psychologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. (Pavlov's dog)

26

Carl Rogers

American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology

27

Wilhelm Wundt

German physician, psychologist, and professor. Known today as one of the founding figures or modern psychology

28

William James

American psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer psychology course in the US. "Father of American Psychology"

29

Levels of analysis

The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

30

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes

31

Experimental psychology

The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

32

Margaret Floy Washburn

American psychologist in the early 20th century, was best known for her experimental work in animal behavior and motor theory development

33

Psychometrics

The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes and traits

34

Cognitive Neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

35

Clinical psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
** cannot prescribe!

36

G. Stanley Hall

Pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on childhood development and the evolutionary theory

37

Jean Piaget

Swiss developmental psychologist known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology"

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Social psychology

The scientific study of how we think, influence, and relate to one another

39

Psychodynamic psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

40

Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-- how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

41

Personality psychology

The study of an individuals' characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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Educational psychology

The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning