Unit 7B Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Unit 7B > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 7B Deck (24):
0

Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

1

Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms

2

Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts strategy-based solutions

3

Creativity

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

4

Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

5

Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

6

Metal set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

7

Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

8

Representative heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes. May lead us to ignore other relevant information

9

Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on the availability in memory; for instances come readily to mind , we assume such events are common

10

Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct-overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

11

Belief preservation

Clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

12

Framing

The way an issue is posed; how am issue is is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

13

Language

Our spoken, written or signed words and the ways to combine to form meaning

14

Phoneme

In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

15

Morpheme

In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)

16

Grammar

In language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand with others

17

Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning

18

Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

19

Babbling stage

Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

20

One-word stage

The stage in speech development, from a bout age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

21

two word stage

Beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements

22

Telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram -go car- using mostly nouns and verbs

23

Linguistic determinism

Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the way we think that