Unit 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (51):
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Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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Teratogens

Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial disproportions

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Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively not influenced by experience

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreting out new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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Accommodations

Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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Sensorimotor stage

In Piagets theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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Preoperational stage

In Piagets theory, the stage (from 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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Conservation

The principle ( which Piaget believed to be part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of the objects

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Egocentrism

In Piagets Theory, the preoperational Childs difficulty taking another's point of view

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Theory of mind

Peoples ideas about their own and others mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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Concrete operational stage

In Piagets theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal operational stage

In Piagets theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding others states of mind

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Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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Critical period

An optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

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Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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Temperament

A persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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Basic trust

According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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Self concept

Our understanding and evaluation of who we are

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Gender

In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and females

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Aggression

Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

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X chromosome

The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. And X chromosome from each parent produces a female child

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Y chromosome

The sex chromosome found in only males. When paired with an X chromosome with the mother, it produces a male child

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Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristic during puberty

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Role

A set of expectations (Norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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Gender role

A set of expected behaviors for both males and females

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Gender identity

Our sense of being male or female

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Gender typing

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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Social learning theory

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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Primary sex characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary sex characteristics

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts, and hips, male voice quality and body hair

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Menarche

The first menstrual period

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Identity

Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify A sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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Social identity

The "we" aspect of our self concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" That comes from our group memberships

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Intimacy

In Eriksons theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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Emerging adulthood

For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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Cross sectional study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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Longitudinal study

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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Crystallized intelligence

Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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Fluid intelligence

Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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Social clock

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement