Unit 7A Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7A Deck (70):
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Hermann Ebbinghaus

1850-1909
Field is psychology and first to conduct studies on forgetting

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Elizabeth Loftus

1944-present
Filed of memory. Expert in eye witness testimony( false memory or misinformation effect)

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George Sperling

Demonstrated sensory memory by flashing a grid of letters for 1/20th of a second: iconic memory

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Oliver sacks

MD; known for collections of neurological case histories

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Daniel Schacter

Psychologist; focused on psychological and biological aspects of human memory and amnesia, with particular emphasis on the distinction b/w conscious and unconscious forms of memory

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Richard Atkinson

Atkinson- Shiffrin model
The most significant advances in the study of human memory. Puts theory of memory on a mathematical basis for the first time

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Karl Lashley

Contributions to the study of learning and memory. Failure to find single biological focus of memory in the rats brain suggested that memories we're not located at one single part of the brain

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Ended Tulving

Differentiated b/w episodic and semantic memory. Also theorized the idea of encoding and retrieval cues for log term memories

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Richard Shiffrin

Proposed the human memory had three stages with Atkinson:
1) sensory
2) short term working
3) long term

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George Miller

Prove a theory called the magical # 7 plus or minus 2 showed the short term memory is limited in capacity

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Fergus Craik

Differentiated b/w episodic and semantic, also theorized the idea of encoding and retrieval cues for long term memories

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Alan Baddeley

Proposed a more complex, modular model of short term memory that characterizes it as "working memory"

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Eric Kandel

Studied conditioned reflects is a simple organism. IE a Sea Slug

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James Schwartz

Neurotransmitter serotonin released when learning occurs, makes synapses more efficient at transmitting signals

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Henry Roediger

False memories created by suggested misinformation and misattributed sources may feel real and be persistent

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Jeffrey Karpicke

identified the testing affect

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Henry Molaison

The most important patient in the history is brain science

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Rajan Mahadevan

On repeated visits to the psychology building at ll Minnesota

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Framing

The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decision and judgments

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Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

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Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that supports out perceptions and to ignores or distort contradictory evidence

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Prototype

A mental image or best examples of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

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Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Concept

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

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Creativity

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

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Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

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Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently

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Algorithms

A methodical, logical rule or produce that guarantees solving a particular problem

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Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions

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Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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Representative heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in term of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes

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Encoding

The processing of informations into the memory system, for example by extracting meaning

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Storage

The retention of encoded information over time

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Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

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Sensory memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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Short term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

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Long term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knows he, skills and experiences

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Working memory

A newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory

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Parallel processing

The processing of any aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step by step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving

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Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and well-learned information, such as word meanings

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Effort full processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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Rehearsal

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

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Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

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Serial Position

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

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Visual encoding

The encoding of picture images

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Acoustic encoding

The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

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Semantic encoding

The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

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Imagery

Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

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Mnemonics

Memory aids; especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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Iconic memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

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Echoic memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

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Long term potentiation (LTP)

An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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Flashbulb memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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Amnesia

The loss of memory

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Implicit memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection AKA nondeclarative or procedural memory

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Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" AKA declarative memory

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Hippocampus

A neural center that is located in the lambic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

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Recall

A measure of memory in which the person musty retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

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Recognition

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

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Relearning

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.

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Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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Mood-congruent memory

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood

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Proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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Retroactive interference

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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Misinformation effect

Incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event

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Source amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or images. AKA misattribution