Research Methods Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (33):
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Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would've foreseen. AKA the I-knew- it - all- along phenomenon

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Critical thinking

Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

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Theory

An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

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Hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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Operational Definition

A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally denied as what intelligence tests measure

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Replication

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see wether the basic finding extents to other participants and circumstances

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Case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the revealing of the universal principles

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Survey

A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning representatives, random sample of the group

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Population

All the cases in the group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Except for national studies, this does NOT refer to a countries whole population)

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Random sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each number has an equal chance of inclusion

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Naturalistic Observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and/or control the situation

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Correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

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Correlation coefficient

A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to 1)

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Scatter plot

A graphed cluster of dots, each which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the two points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)

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Illusory Correlation

The perception of a relationship where none exists

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Experiment

Research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process ( the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors

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Random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the assignment to the different groups

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Debriefing

The post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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Informed consent

An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose wether they wish to participate

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Culture

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions, shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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Statistical Significance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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Normal curve

(Normal distribution)
A symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer at the extremes

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Standard Deviation

A computed measure of how many scores vary around the mean score

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Range

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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Median

The middles score in a distribution; half the scores are about it and half are below

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Mean

The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and diving by the total number of scores or data

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Dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that many change In response to the manipulations of the independent variable

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Confounding variable

A factor other than he independent variable that might produce and effect in an experiment

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Independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

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Control group

In an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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Experimental group

In an experiment, the group that IS exposed the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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Placebo effect

Latin for "I shall please"
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agent

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Double-blind procedure

An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluating studies