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Flashcards in History: British Society Deck (106)
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1

How traditional was education and employment in the 1950s?

Poor efficiency
Boys learnt wood and metal work
Girls learnt mothercraft
Few women went to uni
15% of doctors and 5% lawyers were women

2

How traditional were social attitudes in the 1950s?

Women could do limited range of jobs and expected to leave work when they got married
Nearly 1/3 of all women were teenagers when married

3

What were the signs of change of home life and leisure in the 1950s?

Sports such as football were highly popular
Very few suffered absolute poverty
New welfare state and post economic boom
Heating and indoor toilets

4

How traditional was home life in the 1950s?

Men were the bread winners
50s were dedicated to re-establishing pre war traditions
Divorce was difficult to obtain

5

What were the signs of change in technology in the 1950s?

First washing machine
Tv's in council houses
1 in 5 cars bought with hire purchase

6

What were the signs of change of education and employment in the 1950s?

High wages =can buy luxuries
Hire purchase
15-20s in high demand
More women's workers
Full employment

7

What were the signs of change of social attitudes in the 1950s?

People wanted the war behind them
Able to enjoy consumer goods
Teenagers began to make their own lifestyles
Working class women returned to work when their children were old enough

8

When was the winter of discontent?

1978-9

9

What was the tripartite system?

Primary school=for ages 5-11, classes divided by ability

Secondary technical schools= specialised in mechanical and technical education, very few developed due to high cost

Secondary modern schools= all round education, 70%of pupils went here in the 1950s, 15%left with a certificate of education

Grammar schools= highly academic education, 20%of pupils went here in 1950s, most stayed to take O-levels until 16, many stayed to do A-levels and then uni. 11+ exam at primary school to get in

10

What are the disadvantages of the tripartite system?

Not everyone could go to the best school, had to be the smartest
Not same opportunities at secondary schools, class difference

11

What are the advantages of the tripartite system?

Taught with similar ability pupils
Most left with a qualification
Education provided by state

12

Did grammar schools help working class children get a good education?

In 1951 working class children were taking 52% of grammar school places but the working class made up 70% of the population

Only 26% of those going to uni were from working class backgrounds

13

Did gender make a difference to education and opportunity?

Both studied core lessons eg literacy and numeracy. Boys did wood work and girls did needlework, home economics and mother care. Suggested that girls and boys had different paths for after school.

1951, 80% of young people aged 15-19 were in full time employment and showed that there was pressure on all to leave school and get a job

14

What opportunities were there when you left school in 1950?

10 vacancies for every 1 looking for a job

15

How many women worked In 1961 compared to the 12% in 1951

In 1961 there was 26% but we're doing a limited range of jobs
They were paid poorly

16

Why were comprehensive schools introduced after 1964?

1964-only 10% went to comprehensive schools
1966- labour govt. said it would only give funding for new schools to LEA's to create comprehensive schools
1970- 33% Of students attended comprehensive schools
1974- 62% of students attended comprehensive schools
1979- the education act was repealed by the conservative government but then there were only 150 grammar schools left. 90% of students were attending comprehensive

17

What evidence is there to show that education was improving in the 1960s and 1970s?

Many schools began progressive reforms prioritising a child centred approach
New exam= cse
Raised school leaving age from 15 to 16

18

What evidence is there to show that there were problems in education in the 1960s and 1970s?

Some schools took reforms to extreme (used teachers first names)
Only top 20%took o-levels
Cse was second class qualification

19

How did jobs in Britain change?

Increased number in service sector
More skilled jobs, better pay

Agriculture fell by over half, Imports

Manufacturing fell, imports(cheaper), mechanisation

20

What are blue collar jobs? And what was happening in the 1970s?

Industry and manufacturing

By the 1970: many workers redundant

Trade unions put pressure on employers to pay high wages

British governments tried to reserve jobs rather than encouraging industries to be more efficient by employing fewer workers

British industries not selling abroad, had to compete with other countries (who were making things more cheaply

British empire covered 1/4 of the globe but when independent they didn't necessarily buy from Britain

Machinery was older than other countries

Had to pay high wages so goods were expensive and non competitive

Production inefficient, employed more workers than needed

21

What are white collar jobs and what was happening in the 1970s?

In the service sector= banking and insurance, heathcare, retail etc .

By the 1970s more workers were being recruited

Full employment and high wages meant that people had more disposable income

More jobs in public sector

Government increased spending on Health and education

Fewer machines used

Higher demand for goods and services

More difficult to use machinery in white collar jobs

More women employed and part time meant they could balance work and family

Women were regarded as particularly suitable as they were cheaper to employ, on average were paid 59% of the hourly pay of a man

22

Were opportunities for women improving in the 60s and 70s?

There were more jobs and employers liked them as they were cheaper

23

What and when was the equal pay act?

1970

"Equal pay for work"

Voluntary for businesses until 1975
Many employers claimed (80%of the time successfully) that the work men and women did was different so the law didn't apply

24

What and when was the sex discrimination act?

Made it illegal for employers to treat workers of one gender less favourably than the other

It was difficult for women to bring their claims to court

1975

25

What was the unemployment protection act and when was it?

1975

Made it illegal for women to be sacked because they were pregnant

Gave women the right to maternity pay and to return to their jobs after having the baby

26

Were opportunities for women improving in the 60s and 70s?

There were more jobs and employers liked them as they were cheaper

27

What and when was the equal pay act?

1970

"Equal pay for work"

Voluntary for businesses until 1975
Many employers claimed (80%of the time successfully) that the work men and women did was different so the law didn't apply

28

What and when was the sex discrimination act?

Made it illegal for employers to treat workers of one gender less favourably than the other

It was difficult for women to bring their claims to court

1975

29

What was the unemployment protection act and when was it?

1975

Made it illegal for women to be sacked because they were pregnant

Gave women the right to maternity pay and to return to their jobs after having the baby

30

What did the conservative government led by Edward Heath have the power to do? (1970-74)

Spend government money
Cut spending
Control wages (wage caps) or negotiating with trade unions
Make laws regulating what unions can do