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Flashcards in B2 Deck (80)
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1

Definition of chloroplasts

Contain chlorophyll which is needed for photosynthesis

2

Definition of mitochondria

Convert glucose and oxygen into energy in a process called respiration

3

Definition of nucleus

Controls the activities of the cell. Contains chromosomes (which have genes in them)

4

Definition of vacuole

Filled with water and dissolved chemicals (cell sap). Stores minerals

5

Definition of cytoplasm

Part of the cell where all the chemical reactions take place

6

Definition of cell wall

Strengthens the cell and maintains the shape of the plant. Made of cellulose

7

Definition of cell membrane

The skin surrounding the cell. Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell

8

Definition of diffusion

Spreading of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of low concentration. Passive(no additional energy needed)

9

Factors affecting diffusion

*concentration gradient-higher=faster diffusion

*surface area-larger SA: volume ratio=faster diffusion

*diffusion pathway-smaller diffusion pathway=faster diffusion

*temperature -higher=more kinetic energy=faster diffusion

*size of particle-smaller=faster diffusion

10

Definition of a cell

The smallest structured and functional unit of an organism

11

Definition of a tissue

A group of a specialised cells al carrying out the same function

12

Definition of organ

A group of different tissues working together to carry out a specific function

13

What does the palisade layer contain

Contains the most chloroplasts as it receives the most light

14

What does the lower epidermis do and contain

Has holes called stomata (controlled by guard cells). These allow has exchange

15

Veins...

Carry water and nutrients from roots to the leaf cells and carry glucose away

16

Photosynthesis equation

Carbon dioxide + water ---> glucose + oxygen


6CO2+6H2O---> C6H12O6+6O2

17

Limiting factors of photosynthesis

Light intensity

Carbon dioxide concentration

Temperature

18

Aerobic Respiration reaction

Needs CO2 to happen in the cells mitochondria when glucose reacts with O2 and provides energy

19

Aerobic Respiration reaction equation

Glucose +oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + (energy)

20

Anaerobic Respiration reaction

Glucose---> lactic acid + (energy)

21

Why do living organisms require energy?

Building large molecules from smaller ones

Muscle contractions

Controlling body temperature

22

Definition of ribosomes

Synthesise proteins from amino acids

23

What is oxygen debt

If you use anaerobic respiration to provide energy then the muscles cells break down glucose to lactic acid.

Lowers pH of muscle tissue

Breathing needs to increase so you can use some of the extra oxygen to oxidise the lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. This is repaying oxygen debt

24

What is muscle fatigue

If muscles are subjected to long periods of vigorous activity they become fatigued

Muscle fatigue happens if insufficient oxygen is reaching the muscles they use anaerobic respiration to obtain energy

25

Definition of biodiversity

Number of living different organisms in an area

26

Definition of niche

The part of a habitat that an animal is adapted to

27

Definition of sampling

Taking measurements at several points to allow us to make assumptions of the area as a whole

28

Definition of distribution

Where an organism can be found

29

Random sampling is...

Used to eliminate bias in collecting data

30

Systematic sampling...

Is when samples are taken at regular intervals within a set sampling area