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Flashcards in C1 Deck (69)
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1

What is an alkene and what is its formula?

Contain a double bond between two carbon atoms. This makes them much more reactive than alkanes. They are unsaturated.

AN UNSATURATED HYDROCARBON

CnH2n

2

What is an alkane and what is its formula?

Contain single c to c bonds. They are saturated.

A SATURATED HYDROCARBON CONTAINING SINLGE C-C BONDS

CnH2n+2

3

What does saturated mean?

Only contains single c-c bonds

4

What does unsaturated mean?

Contains at least one c=c double bond

5

What is crude oil?

A mixture of a very large number of compounds which are useful to us most of which are hydrocarbons with different boiling points

6

How do we separate crude oil?

Fractional distillation

7

Why is it possible to separate the fractions of crude oil by fractional distillation?

The compounds have different boiling point

8

What are the properties of the top of the column in fractional distillation?

Small molecules:
•low boiling point
•very volatile
•flows easily
•ignites easily

9

What are the properties of the bottom of the column in fractional distillation?

Large molecules:
•high boiling point
•not very volatile
•doesn't flow easily
•doesn't ignite easily

10

What is the definition a hydrocarbon?

Molecules containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms

11

What is the equation for incomplete combustion?

CH4+O2=CO+C+2H2O

12

What is the equation for complete combustion?

CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O

13

Why does incomplete combustion occur?

there isn't enough oxygen to react with

14

What does incomplete combustion produce?

Carbon monoxide, carbon and water

15

What effect does carbon monoxide have on humans?

it is poisonous and harmful. Is also a greenhouse gas

16

What is Sulphur Dioxide?

Compound which contains one sulphur atom and two carbon atoms in each molecule and is present in acid rain.

17

How are oxides of nitrogen produced when fuels burn in car engines?

Nitrogen and oxygen react together in the high temperature of the car engine to form nitrogen oxide

18

What are biofuels?

Anything which comes from a living organism
OR
A fuel obtained from a grown crop such as ethanol from sugar cane

19

List 4 disadvantages of biofuels

1)using fuel instead of food means less food is produced (leads to higher prices)
2)Both fossil fuels and biofuels produce CO2
3)Energy used for machinery may be more than what is produced.
4)Decrease in biodiversity

20

What is Cracking?

Process of breaking large molecules into smaller more useful ones by heating or using a catalyst

21

List the stages in cracking

*heat to vaporise the long alkanes
*vapours are then passed over a hot catalyst
(or mixed with steam at a very high temperature)
*thermal decomposition then occurs

22

What is a catalyst?

Substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction

23

What are the products of cracking?

Cracking always produces two types of molecule: an alkane and an alkene

24

What is a polymer?

Material whose molecules are made up of many monomers

25

What is polymerisation?

Is when many monomers join together to form a long chain called a polymer

26

What two polymers would be made from the monomers ethene and propane?

poly(ethene) and poly(propane)

27

What name do we give the mouldable polymers that are made from alkenes?

Plastics

28

What is the issue with disposing of plastics?

They are not biodegradable

29

State the two ways in which ethanol can be produced

From ethane- ethane+steam=ethanol
From sugars-glucose=ethanol+carbon dioxide

30

What are some of the main differences between the two ways to produce ethanol?

From ethane, cracking is used, there are no waste products but it is a non-renewable source
Wheras, from sugars, fermentation is used, CO2 is a waste product but it is renewable as the materials for fermentation can grow again